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Title: The development of art institutions in Quebec and Ontario (1876-1914) and the South Kensington influence
Author: Stirling, J. Craig
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1989
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The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the evolution of art educational institutions in Quebec and Ontario between 1876 and the First World War. This study reveals that for the 'Canadian' art student during this period (1876-1914) drawing and art education was limited to a few art schools that had been modelled upon the British South Kensington system and its method of drawing instruction. Documented sources of private and public art schools indicate that an awareness of and written communication with the South Kensington art educational authorities existed prior to 1876; however, it was not until 1876 that a standardized system of drawing instruction was adopted by Quebec and Ontario provincial government post-secondary art schools, as well as, primary and secondary public day schools, and evening classes. The catalyst for the adoption of a system of drawing, which would meet the needs of an emerging industrial Canada, was primarily due to British-born Walter Smith (1836-1886). Both Quebec and Ontario sent educational delegations to the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition and were impressed, as were others, with the exhibits of art students from Massachusetts, who, since 1871, had followed the Walter Smith system of drawing instruction, that was inspired by its British prototype, the South Kensington system. Smith was a graduate of and former teacher in the South Kensington system, whose ideas on art and its close relationship to industry conformed to the utilitarian philosophy promoted by the South Kensington art educators. To evaluate the extent of the South Kensington influence in Ontario and Quebec at the provincial government art schools and at the Art Association of Montreal, Quebec, I have used six determinants: curriculum, drawing instruction, models and teaching apparati, staff, the operation and administration of the system, and the writings of four art educators who had longstanding affiliations and influence with art schools. In Ontario, George A. Reid (1860-1947) and William Cruikshank (1848-1922); in Quebec, Edmond Dyonnet (1859-1934) at the Council art school, Montreal and William Brymner (1855-1925) at the A.A.M. The writings of two other Quebec art educators, abbe Joseph Chabert (1832-1894) and Napoleon Bourassa (1827-1916) have been examined for their contribution.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available