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Title: Antiviral mechanisms of small molecules targeting the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus
Author: Howe, Jonathon David
ISNI:       0000 0004 5353 3660
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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N-linked glycosylation is the most common form of post-translational modification in nature and is essential to almost all enveloped viruses, including members of the Flaviviridae family. The host cell N-linked glycoprotein processing pathway is utilised by these viruses and as such has long been identified as a potential target for the development of antiviral drugs. Here, the antiviral mechanisms of three classes of small molecules targeting the secretory pathway and altering viral envelope glycosylation are investigated, using the HCV surrogate model, BVDV. The antiviral activity of imino sugars, principally through α-glucosidase inhibition, is well-characterised and here, a group of novel adamantyl coupled imino sugars are investigated and demonstrated to inhibit ER α glucosidases, which correlates with their antiviral activity against BVDV. Additionally, BVDV is used to study the antiviral mechanism of action of nitazoxanide. Nitazoxanide, the parent compound of the thiazolide class of structures, is a broadly antimicrobial compound with antiviral activity against HBV, HCV, influenza, JEV and others. Here, nitazoxanide is shown to be antiviral against BVDV by inducing Ca2+ release from ATP-sensitive intracellular calcium stores, disrupting ER-Golgi trafficking and inhibiting complex glycan formation. Finally, the potential of Golgi endo-α-mannosidase as an antiviral target is explored, using the endomannosidase inhibitor glucose-isofagomine in conjunction with the imino sugar α-glucosidase inhibitor NAP-DNJ. Endomannosidase is shown to be a valid antiviral target for BVDV, both alone and in combination with α-glucosidase inhibition, and is utilised by viral glycoproteins to acquire complex glycan structure, even in the absence of α-glucosidase inhibition. Altogether, this work furthers our understanding of the varied antiviral mechanisms of small molecules targeting the secretory pathway, enhancing the search for novel antiviral drugs directed against host cell machinery.
Supervisor: Wormald, Mark R.; Butters, Terry D. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Biochemistry ; Glycobiology ; Glycosidase Inhibitors ; Antiviral mechanisms