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Title: Message forwarding techniques in Bluetooth enabled opportunistic communication environment
Author: Khan, Sardar Kashif Ashraf
ISNI:       0000 0004 5352 8634
Awarding Body: Middlesex University
Current Institution: Middlesex University
Date of Award: 2015
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These days, most of the mobile phones are smart enough with computer like intelligence and equipped with multiple communication technologies such as Bluetooth, wireless LAN, GPRS and GSM. Different communication medium on single device have unlocked the new horizon of communication means. Modern mobile phones are not only capable of using traditional way of communication via GSM or GPRS; but, also use wireless LANs using access points where available. Among these communication means, Bluetooth technology is very intriguing and unique in nature. Any two devices equipped with Bluetooth technology can communicate directly due to their unique IDs in the world. This is opposite to GSM or Wireless LAN technology; where devices are dependent on infrastructure of service providers and have to pay for their services. Due to continual advancement in the field of mobile technology, mobile ad-hoc network seems to be more realised than ever using Bluetooth. In traditional mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs), before information sharing, devices have partial or full knowledge of routes to the destinations using ad-hoc routing protocols. This kind of communication can only be realised if nodes follow the certain pattern. However, in reality mobile ad-hoc networks are highly unpredictable, any node can join or leave network at any time, thus making them risky for effective communication. This issue is addressed by introducing new breed of ad-hoc networking, known as opportunistic networks. Opportunistic networking is a concept that is evolved from mobile ad-hoc networking. In opportunistic networks nodes have no prior knowledge of routes to intended destinations. Any node in the network can be used as potential forwarder with the exception of taking information one step closer to intended destination. The forwarding decision is based on the information gathered from the source node or encountering node. The opportunistic forwarding can only be achieved if message forwarding is carried out in store and forward fashion. Although, opportunistic networks are more flexible than traditional MANETs, however, due to little insight of network, it poses distinct challenges such as intermittent connectivity, variable delays, short connection duration and dynamic topology. Addressing these challenges in opportunistic network is the basis for developing new and efficient protocols for information sharing. The aim of this research is to design different routing/forwarding techniques for opportunistic networks to improve the overall message delivery at destinations while keeping the communication cost very low. Some assumptions are considered to improved directivity of message flow towards intended destinations. These assumptions exploit human social relationships analogies, approximate awareness of the location of nodes in the network and use of hybrid communication by combining several routing concept to gain maximum message directivity. Enhancement in message forwarding in opportunistic networks can be achieved by targeting key nodes that show high degree of influence, popularity or knowledge inside the network. Based on this observation, this thesis presents an improved version of Lobby Influence (LI) algorithm called as Enhanced Lobby Influence (ELI). In LI, the forwarding decision is based on two important factors, popularity of node and popularity of node’s neighbour. The forwarding decision of Enhanced Lobby Influence not only depends on the intermediate node selection criteria as defined in Lobby Influence but also based on the knowledge of previously direct message delivery of intended destination. An improvement can be observed if nodes are aware of approximate position of intended destinations by some communication means such as GPS, GSM or WLAN access points. With the knowledge of nodes position in the network, high message directivity can be achieved by using simple concepts of direction vectors. Based on this observation, this research presents another new algorithm named as Location-aware opportunistic content forwarding (LOC). Last but not least, this research presents an orthodox yet unexplored approach for efficient message forwarding in Bluetooth communication environment, named as Hybrid Content Forwarding (HCF). The new approach combines the characteristics of social centrality based forwarding techniques used in opportunistic networks with traditional MANETs protocols used in Bluetooth scatternets. Simulation results show that a significant increase in delivery radio and cost reduction during content forwarding is observed by deploying these proposed algorithms. Also, comparison with existing technique shows the efficiency of using the new schemes.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available