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Title: Relaxing music for anxiety control : can appropriately selected music be used to control competitive state anxiety?
Author: Elliott, David
Awarding Body: University of Cumbria/Lancaster University
Current Institution: University of Cumbria
Date of Award: 2012
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This thesis set out to determine the characteristics of relaxing music for anxiety control. Instructed to imagine themselves in an anxiety-producing situation, eighty-four undergraduate sport students were asked to (1) rate thirty music compositions for levels of relaxation; (2) identify factors that either enhanced or detracted from relaxation; (3) state the emotions induced by each composition and (4) provide an importance rating for thirteen music components. Additional information was obtained using a focus group of music. experts. It was found that particular music characteristics were conducive to relaxation (e.g. slow tempo, secure melody). The most frequent emotional labels ascribed to relaxing music for anxiety control were 'peaceful', 'serenity' and 'sadness' . Tempo, melody, beat and harmony were the components considered to be most conducive to relaxation. Gender and level of music knowledge had minimal impact upon the outcomes. The effects of relaxing music for anxiety control on competitive state anxiety were also examined. Seventy-two undergraduate sport students were required to compete in a sports competition. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions (relaxing music for anxiety control, non-relaxing music and no-music). During a precompetition intervention period, anxiety measures (CSAI-2R, subjective relaxation and HR) were taken (baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention). All three interventions led to significant reductions in somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety and HR. Both music conditions provoked significant increases in subjective relaxation. ES, mean-difference and 90% data did offer some support for relaxing music for the applications of anxiety control. This thesis also examined some of the mechanisms responsible for music's anxiety reducing effects.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: 150 Psychology ; 612 Human physiology (incl. neurophysiology) ; 796 Athletic & outdoor sports & games ; 780 Music