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Title: Transporting the next generation of CO2 for carbon capture and storage
Author: Seevam, Patricia
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2010
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Climate change has been attributed to greenhouse gases with carbon dioxide (C02) from power plants being the major contributor. Governments and industry worldwide are now proposing to capture CO2 from their power plants and either store it in depleted reservoirs or saline aquifers ('Carbon Capture and Storage', CCS), or use it for 'Enhanced Oil Recovery' (EOR) in depleting oil and gas fields. The research reported will have significant implications on the feasibility for future CO2 transportation for CCS. The United States has over 30 years experience with the transportation of carbon dioxide by pipeline, mainly from naturally OCCUlTing, relatively pure CO2 sources for onshore EOR. CCS projects differ significantly from this past experience as they will be focusing on anthropogenic sources from major polluters such as fossil fuel power plants. The fossil fuel power plants will produce CO2 with varying quality/purity of CO2 depending on the capture technology used. It was concluded that power plant impurities such as Ar, SOx and NOx have never been transported before and that gaseous transportation of C02 should be considered as an option in the .early stages of CO2 deployment. Application of current design and operational procedures to the new generation pipelines may not be deemed feasible due to the effect of anthropogenic CO2 on pipeline hydraulics. This could potentially yield an unsafe pipeline facility, with excessive investment and operating cost. In particular, the presence of impurities has a significant impact on the physical properties of the transported CO2 which affects: pipeline design; compressor/pump power, repressurisation distance and pipeline capacity. The effect of impurities on C02 is generally to raise the critical pressure and increase the two-phase region. An increase in the critical pressure and two-phase area reduces the operating flexibility of the pipeline. Large temperature and pressure drops are associated with the operating pressures and temperatures in the pipeline in the region of two-phase flow. Another alternative being considered for C02 transportation is the re-use of existing pipeline infrastructure. However, it has been identified that some limitation exists due to the operating parameters of these pipeline such as the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP), integrity and also the design capacity. Therefore, gaseous transportation may prove to be more feasible in these cases. Nevertheless, in order to meet emission targets, supercritical transport will be required, as it is able to transport the required amount of CO2 in order to meet emission targets due to the size of the infrastructure required. All these effects will have to be carefully considered as it has direct implications for both the technical and economic feasibility of developing a carbon dioxide pipeline infrastructure both in the UK and internationally. Transient power plant operation will lead to changes in the CO2 produced. Therefore, the transportation system must be designed to handle these changes in flow and options such as linepacking should be considered. It has been shown that linepacking gaseous pipelines are more feasible than operating supercritical CO2 pipelines. Therefore, venting needs to be considered as a potential option for supercritical CO2 pipelines. This could in turn incur additional costs due to potential regulatory requirements.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available