Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Relative toxicity of insecticides to crucifer pests and their natural enemies : interaction of insecticide and insect behaviours
Author: Anjum, Farida
ISNI:       0000 0004 5349 450X
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2015
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Pesticides remain a necessary component of many agricultural systems and used judiciously they can play an important role in Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programmes. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors influencing the differential toxicity of insecticides against a cosmopolitan insect pest of crucifer crops, the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, and its respective hymenopteran parasitoid, Cotesia vestalis. Such knowledge can help in the effective use of insecticides with biological control agents in IPM. Three insecticides regarded as being compatible with some natural enemies (abamectin, spinosad, indoxacarb) and a compound generally regarded as harmful to natural enemies (lambda-cyhalothrin) were examined. Similar tests were also carried out with the peach potato aphid Myzus persicae and its parasitoid Aphidius colemani due to the loss of the Cotesia vestalis culture. A comparative measure of the intrinsic toxicity of fresh deposits (Day 0) of insecticides on Chinese cabbage was determined for both pest and parasitoid species. Lambda-cyhalothrin and abamectin were the most toxic compounds against both pests and their parasitoids, while indoxacarb and spinosad were less toxic. Residual bioassays were conducted using sprayed plants maintained under glasshouse conditions for 0-28 days after insecticide application. Results indicated lambda-cyhalothrin was the most persistent compound and abamectin and spinosad the least persistent. A leaf wax stripping technique was used with bioassays to compare the distribution of insecticide residues between the epicuticular wax layer and underlying leaf tissues. Wax removal significantly reduced the toxicity of all insecticides. No-choice and choice behavioural assays were conducted for both parasitoid species with leaf discs treated with LC5 and LC50 levels of insecticides. Both parasitoids tended to avoid insecticide-treated leaves, giving preference to untreated leaves or the arena. Emergence of adult parasitoids from cocoons/mummies on insecticide-treated leaves was not significantly different from untreated controls. The results are discussed in terms of the bioavailability of insecticides to phytophagous and non-phytophagous insect species.
Supervisor: Wright, Denis Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral