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Title: Construction, standardisation, validations and factorial and other analyses of a group picture-test
Author: Fulton, A. S.
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1961
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The principal conclusions reached as a result of the entire Draft C project may now be assembled, and indications given of further work which could be carried out. It seems from all the evidence that Draft C is not, after all (although a timed test) e test where results are based mainly on speed. The factor analyses failed to locate a clear speed - factor, the non -completion data in the error -analyses provided evidence that speed plays a pert (though not necessarily a significant pert), and the interviews showed that scores, while affected by quickness or slowness of response, probably do not in feet depend on a speed- factor as a crucial component in performance. The writer considers that while speed clearly enters into the matter, these tests are not so severely timed as to make speed the principal element. Nor can it be said that Draft C is essentially a power - test, in the same sense as the American P.M.A. test, for it was found in the course of the 65 interviews, and in the individual testing, that it was a relatively rare occurrence for a child to fail irrevocably in any of the items, given leisure, due encouragement, and re- iteration of the instructions. This could hardly be said of the P.M.A. test, which, covering as it does a two -year age -span, contains items which inevitably prove to be beyond the maturational stage of many of the children. It might be considered that the "power" aspect of Draft C is simply masked by the fact that it deals with a narrower age -range, maturational demands being less obvious in items appropriate to a single year of age- range. This might indeed have been a valid supposition, were it not for the writer's testimony that virtually all the children can in fact eventually solve and deal with all the items. Again, it appears from the factor- analyses, the validation against school performance, and the interviews, that Draft C is not primarily measuring school attainment in verbal and number skills to the same extent as the P.M.A. test. There are in it no specific Parts designed to test classroom skills, as are present in the P.M.A. (particularly the verbal and number parts). The result of this is demonstrated clearly enough by Draft C's lower correlation with a school attainment that was assessed mainly on reading and number. It appears that although no "age" factor was clearly disclosed by the factor analyses, the evidence afforded by the standardisation, the error -analyses and the interviews makes it fairly obvious that age is indeed of some importance in the Draft C test -performance, but undoubtedly less than if the test had been testing school attainment in verbal and number skills. The interviews in particular show that while the older child is likely to have an advantage in vocabulary, and consequently some advantage conferred by recognition and naming of pictures, this does not seem to be the crucial element in success. The Draft C test emerges from all these processes of investigation as a more homespun, less sophisticated test than the P.M.A. test. It is appropriate to a much narrower range of age, as was shown by the results of the extensive re -test with 7 -yearolds and the error -patterns based thereon. rlithin the agerange to which it is directed, it appears to measure adequacy of comprehension of oral instructions (which may be termed the "reception" aspect of mental activity) and also a general "reason - ing" ability (which concerns more the "production" aspect of this activity). The test has also been seen to measure a spatial/ perceptual ability, more rudimentary perhaps and not so specific as that tested by the P.L.A. identities and space tests. There is less demand made on either acuity or speed, but it is none the less an ability emphasising a "physical' element of perception. With regard to boy -girl differences, the factor analyses seemed to indicate greater reliance by the girls on both verbal/ naming and verbal /reasoning ability, while the boys appear to show dependence on perceptual ability, and in a wider spread of tests. (The P.L.A. identities and space tests showed the most nearly significant means in favour of boys) . The Draft C Parts 7 and 8 (particularly the lengthier items of the latter) have repeatedly shown some such distinction as this in the course of the interviews and individual tests - the girls tend to verbalise, describe and "debate'? the shapes and the patterns in these Parts, while the boys are making much more use of an ability to "see" and "spot" (quite noticeably in the longer items of Part 8 mentioned above), as indeed they also seem to do in some of the earlier Parts of the test, where again the girls were more likely to verbalise and "reason ". This tendency on the boys' part credits the boys with greater perceptual quickness and acuity with regard to present and (as in the P.M.A.) complex perceptual material, while the girls may show some tendency towards successful "imaginal" handling of rather less complex perceptual data: a tendency which need not be unrelated to a verbal ability ... The interviews with the 65 children corroborated the findings of the factor analyses by underlining the special importance of verbal /reasoning rather than verbal /naming as the deciding factor in the Draft C test, and in distinguishing also a perceptual and spatial element. The girls interviewed and tested individually appeared to use e verbal approach even to the more "spatial" Parts of the test, with conspicuous success in Part 8, where their mean score was higher than that of the boys (giving a "t" ratio of 1.36).
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available