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Title: Studies on the cellular interactions involved in experimental and chronic irritant dermatitis
Author: Forsey, Rosalyn Jane
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1997
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We have compared the effect of three chemically diverse common irritants on 100 patients with a history of chronic ICD for more than 6 weeks, and 31 normal volunteers. The irritants were titrated on normal skin to induce similar grades of erythema by 48 hours. The final concentrations, 80% nonanoic acid (NA), 5% sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and 0.01% dithranol (DL) were applied to the volar aspect of the forearm for various timepoints up to 48 hours. DL irritation evoked minimal histopathological changes. Epidermal damage however, was observed after both NA and SLS application. NA irritation profoundly affected the epidermal LC population, inducing redistribution, apoptosis and a dramatic decrease in LC numbers by 24 hours. Keratinocyte (KC) apoptosis and mild spongiosis was also evident. In contrast SLS irritation had a marked affect upon the epidermal KC population, inducing proliferation, parakeratosis, severe oedema and focal KC activation by 24 and 48 hours. KC activation, defined by MHC II and CD54 expression accompanied an extensive leucocyte exocytosis. SLS irritation also reduced epidermal LC numbers by 48 hours, but not as a result of apoptosis. These findings suggest that for the two irritants different mechanisms are involved in LC reduction and therefore have important implications for antigen presentation and immune responses. KC activation and the resultant leucocyte influx were probably triggered through cytokine production. We suggest that the potent T cell and neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8, present after SLS application, was responsible for the heavy dermal and subsequent epidermal leucocyte influx observed by 24 and 48 hours. In the case of NA irritation leucocyte infiltration was less significant, neutrophils were present in the papillary dermis infiltrate at 6 hours, although this influx was not sustained. In contrast, SLS irritation caused dermal accumulation of larger numbers of neutrophils at 24 and 48 hours.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available