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Title: Effects of virus infection and smoking on binding of bacteria to epithelial cells
Author: El-Ahmer, Omar Ramadan
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1997
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The objectives of the study were: (1) to determine if there is a similar pattern of enhanced binding of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae type b, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bordetella pertussis to RSV subgroup B infected cells as observed with RSV subgroup A infection; (2) to determine if there is increased binding of other species of bacteria associated with meningitis and those associated with secondary respiratory infections or exacerbation of chronic bronchitis to RSV infected cells; (3) to determine if there was similar pattern of increased bacterial binding to influenza virus infected cells; (4) to determine if as with RSV infected cells there was an increase in expression of native cell surface antigens which can act as receptors for bacteria; (5) to determine if there is enhanced binding of bacteria associated with meningitis or respiratory disease to cells of smokers; (6) to assess cells of smokers and non-smokers for differences in levels of antigens proposed to act as bacterial receptors. With the exception of an antibiotic-sensitive strain of Moraxella catarrhalis (MC2) infection of an epithelial cell line (HEp-2) with RSV (subgroups A or B) enhanced binding of all bacterial strains tested. Compared with the antibiotic resistant strain, MC2 and other antibiotic-sensitive isolates of M. catarrhalis were found to express differences in outer membrane proteins, sensitivity to complement-mediated killing, phagocytosis and intracellular survival. Cells infected with human influenza A virus showed increased adherence of each of the species tested, including the antibiotic-sensitive isolates of M. catarrhalis. Compared with uninfected cells, influenza virus infected HEp-2 cells showed significantly increased binding of monoclonal antibodies for the cell surface antigens CD14 and CD18 that can act as receptors for some bacteria. Pre-treatment of HEp-2 cells with neuraminidase showed increased bacterial binding compared with untreated HEp-2 cells, but the increase was less than that observed for influenza infected cells. The results suggest that while smoking is a predisposing factor for viral infection, it can enhance bacterial binding of strains associated with meningitis or respiratory infection on its own.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available