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Title: Safety of indoor use of fuel cell and hydrogen systems
Author: Shentsov, Volodymyr
ISNI:       0000 0004 5348 5398
Awarding Body: Ulster University
Current Institution: Ulster University
Date of Award: 2015
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This research investigates and closes a number of knowledge gaps in the safety of the indoor use of fuel cell and hydrogen (FCH) systems. New analytical models were developed and validated for steady state release and dispersion of hydrogen in an enclosure with one and two vents. Jet fire phenomena were studied for different combustion regimes, including well-ventilated and under-ventilated regimes, self-extinction, re-ignition and an external jet flame. To identify aims and objectives a broad literature review of theoretical, experimental and modelling work relating to hydrogen releases and jet fires has been completed. Based on knowledge gaps identified a model for passive ventilation of a sustained gaseous leak in an enclosure with one vent has been developed on the assumption of perfect mixing. The model predictions are compared against experimental helium concentration for both uniform and non-uniform helium-ail' mixtures. The criterion for mixture uniformity in an enclosure with one vent is suggested. Model equations derived for passive ventilation aided for the developments of engineering tools in the form of nomograms. These nomograms can be used to calculate the mass flow rate limit leading to 100% hydrogen concentration and calculation of steady state hydrogen concentration in the enclosure. In situations where simple analytical formulas are not applicable use of CFD is required. For this reason Numerical and physical requirements were formulated for simulations of light gas release and dispersion in one vent enclosure based on a parametric study and are acceptable from hydrogen safety engineering point of view. Hydrogen jet fire phenomenon requires numerical investigation therefore a study performed to identify general rules for hydrogen fire regimes in an enclosUl'e. Two modes of under-ventilated fires were observed and identified: external flame and self-extinction of the flame. The phenomenon of the hydrogen flame "re-ignition" by termination of hydrogen supply in an enclosure with one and two vents was reproduced in numerical experiments and recommendations are given. An equation is proposed foJ' the prediction of time when, two possible modes of under-ventilated regimes can occur: self-extinction or an external flame. The results of the current research have contributed to the European guidelines deliverable D 5.1 of the "Pre-normative research on safe indoor use of fuel cells and hydrogen systems" HyIndoor project (
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available