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Title: Development of the gas phase laser induced phosphorscence technique and soot measurements in flame using laser induced incandescence
Author: Lawrence, Martin
Awarding Body: Brunel University
Current Institution: Brunel University
Date of Award: 2013
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Thermometry measurements were carried out using planar laser induced phosphorescence in conjunction with thermographic phosphors in heated turbulent jets and laminar flames in order to further develop the technique for usage in flames. Two dimensional thermometry measurements are essential to improve the understanding of combustion processes, as temperature governs soot pyrolysis, leading to soot formation. Two particular thermographic phosphors, BAM and YAG:Dy were tested and compared and it was found that they were unsuitable for gas phase flame thermometry measurements. Soot volume fraction measurements were carried out using planar two colour laser induced incandescence in gaseous and liquid fuel flames. The gas fuel flames were diluted with nitrogen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen individually and then with nitrogen and hydrogen together, as well as carbon dioxide and hydrogen together, separately. Results revealed the dilution effects of the gases on the soot formation process, where increasing nitrogen percentage in the flow decreased SVF, carbon dioxide reduced it further and hydrogen showed no marked difference. Biodiesels were compared with each other and with diesel in a wick burner in order to analyse their compositional effects on soot. Biodiesel composition was measured using gas chromatography. The sooting tendencies of the biodiesels were as expected, fuels with a longer average carbon chain length and a higher degree of unsaturation were found to produce more soot than shorter, more saturated fuels. Diesel was sootier than all of the biofuels tested, due to containing aromatics and a lower oxygen content. A pilot study was also done, where the performance and emissions of biofuels and biofuel-diesel blends were tested in a gas turbine engine, in order to relate the investigation to real world situations.
Supervisor: Ganippa, L. Sponsor: Thomas Gerald Gray Charitable Trust ; Phosphor Technology Ltd
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Thermographic phosphors ; Gas volume fraction ; Soot volume fraction ; Dilution ; Biodiesel