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Title: Querying the web of data with low latency : high performance distributed SPARQL processing and benchmarking
Author: Wang, Xin
ISNI:       0000 0004 5347 0786
Awarding Body: University of Southampton
Current Institution: University of Southampton
Date of Award: 2014
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The Web of Data extends the World Wide Web (WWW) in a way that applications can understand information and cooperate with humans on complex tasks. The basis of performing complex tasks is low latency queries over the Web of Data. The large scale and distributed nature of the Web of Data have negative impacts on several critical factors for efficient query processing, including fast data transmission between datasets, predictable data distribution and statistics that summarise and describe certain patterns in the data. Moreover, it is common on the Web of Data that the same resource is identified by multiple URIs. This phenomenon, named co-reference, potentially increases the complexity of query processing, and makes it even harder to obtain accurate statistics. With the aforementioned challenges, it is not clear whether it is possible to achieve efficient queries on the Web of Data on a large scale. In this thesis, we explore techniques to improve the efficiency of querying the Web of Data on a large scale. More specifically, we investigate two typical scenarios on the Web of Data, which are: 1) the scenario in which all datasets provide detailed statistics that are possibly available on a large scale, and 2) the scenario in which co-reference is taken into account, and datasets’ statistics are not reliable. For each scenario we explore existing and novel optimisation techniques that are tailored for querying the Web of Data, as well as well developed techniques with careful adjustments. For the scenario with detailed statistics we provide a scheme that implements a statistics query optimisation approach that requires detailed statistics, and intensively exploits parallelism. We propose an efficient algorithm called Parallel Sub-query Identification () to increase the degree of parallelism. () breaks a SPARQL query into sub-queries that can be processed in parallel while not increasing network traffic. We combine with dynamic programming to produce query plans with both minimum costs and a fair degree of parallelism. Furthermore, we develop a mechanism that maximally exploits bandwidth and computing power of datasets. For the scenario having co-reference and without reliable statistics we provide a scheme that implements a dynamic query optimisation approach that takes co-reference into account, and utilises runtime statistics to elevate query efficiency even further. We propose a model called Virtual Graph to transform a query and all its co-referent siblings into a single query with pre-defined bindings. Virtual Graph reduces the large number of outgoing and incoming requests that is required to process co-referent queries individually. Moreover, Virtual Graph enables query optimisers to find the optimal plan with respect to all co-referent queries as a whole. () is used in this scheme as well but provides a higher degree of parallelism with the help of runtime statistics. A Minimum-Spanning-Tree-based algorithm is used in this scheme as a result of using runtime statistics. The same parallel execution mechanism used in the previous scenario is adopted here as well. In order to examine the effectiveness of our schemes in practice, we deploy the above approaches in two distributed SPARQL engines, LHD-s and LHD-d respectively. Both engines are implemented using a popular Java-based platform for building Semantic Web applications. They can be used as either standalone applications or integrated into existing systems that require quick response of Linked Data queries. We also propose a scalable and flexible benchmark, called Distributed SPARQL Evaluation Framework (DSEF), for evaluating optimisation approaches in the Web of Data. DSEF adopts a expandable virtual-machine-based structure and provides a set of efficient tools to help easily set up RDF networks of arbitrary sizes. We further investigate the proportion and distribution of co-reference in the real world, based on which DESF is able to simulate co-reference for given RDF datasets. DSEF bases its soundness in the usage of widely accepted assessment data and queries. By comparing both LHD-s and LHD-d with existing approaches using DSEF, we provide evidence that neither existing statistics provided by datasets nor cost estimation methods, are sufficiently accurate. On the other hand, dynamic optimisation using runtime statistics together with carefully tuned parallelism are promising for significantly reducing the latency of large scale queries on the Web of Data. We also demonstrate that () and Virtual Graph algorithms significantly increase query efficiency for queries with or without co-reference. In summary, the contributions of this these include: 1) proposing two schemes for improving query efficiency in two typical scenarios in the Web of Data; 2) providing implementations, named LHD-s and LHD-d, for the two schemes respectively; 3) proposing a scalable and flexible evaluation framework for distributed SPARQL engines called DSEF; and 4) showing evidence that runtime-statistics-based dynamic optimisation with parallelism are promising to reduce latency of Linked Data queries on a large scale.
Supervisor: Tiropanis, Athanassios Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QA75 Electronic computers. Computer science