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Title: Heterotic string models on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds
Author: Constantin, Andrei
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
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This thesis contributes with a number of topics to the subject of string compactifications, especially in the instance of the E8 × E8 heterotic string theory compactified on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds. In the first half of the work, I discuss the Hodge plot associated with Calabi-Yau threefolds that are hypersurfaces in toric varieties. The intricate structure of this plot is explained by the existence of certain webs of elliptic-K3 fibrations, whose mirror images are also elliptic-K3 fibrations. Such manifolds arise from reflexive polytopes that can be cut into two parts along slices corresponding to the K3 fiber. Any two half-polytopes over a given slice can be combined into a reflexive polytope. This fact, together with a remarkable relation on the additivity of Hodge numbers, give to the Hodge plot the appearance of a fractal. Moving on, I discuss a different type of web of manifolds, by looking at smooth Z3-quotients of Calabi-Yau three-folds realised as complete intersections in products of projective spaces. Non-simply connected Calabi-Yau three-folds provide an essential ingredient in heterotic string compactifications. Such manifolds are rare in the classical constructions, but they can be obtained as quotients of homotopically trivial Calabi-Yau three-folds by free actions of finite groups. Many of these quotients are connected by conifold transitions. In the second half of the work, I explore an algorithmic approach to constructing E8 × E8 heterotic compactifications using holomorphic and poly-stable sums of line bundles over complete intersection Calabi-Yau three-folds that admit freely acting discrete symmetries. Such Abelian bundles lead to N = 1 supersymmetric GUT theories with gauge group SU(5) × U(4) and matter fields in the 10, ⁻10, ⁻5, 5 and 1 representations of SU(5). The extra U(1) symmetries are generically Green-Schwarz anomalous and, as such, they survive in the low energy theory only as global symmetries. These, in turn, constrain the low energy theory and in many cases forbid the existence of undesired operators, such as dimension four or five proton decay operators. The line bundle construction allows for a systematic computer search resulting in a plethora of models with the exact matter spectrum of the Minimally Supersymmetric Standard Model, one or more pairs of Higgs doublets and no exotic fields charged under the Standard Model group. In the last part of the thesis I focus on the case study of a Calabi-Yau hypersurface embedded in a product of four CP1 spaces, referred to as the tetraquadric manifold. I address the question of the finiteness of the class of consistent and physically viable line bundle models constructed on this manifold. Line bundle sums are part of a moduli space of non-Abelian bundles and they provide an accessible window into this moduli space. I explore the moduli space of heterotic compactifications on the tetraquadric hypersurface around a locus where the vector bundle splits as a direct sum of line bundles, using the monad construction. The monad construction provides a description of poly-stable S(U(4) × U(1))–bundles leading to GUT models with the correct field content in order to induce standard-like models. These deformations represent a class of consistent non-Abelian models that has co-dimension one in Kähler moduli space.
Supervisor: Candelas, Philip; Lukas, Andre Sponsor: Science and Technology Facilities Council ; University College (University of Oxford)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Theoretical physics ; Elementary particle theory ; heterotic string theory ; model building ; Calabi-Yau manifolds