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Title: On the behaviour of porcine adipose and skeletal muscle tissues under shock compression
Author: Wilgeroth, J. M.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5365 6652
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2014
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The response of porcine adipose and skeletal muscle tissues to shock compression has been investigated using the plate-impact technique in conjunction with manganin foil pressure gauge diagnostics. This approach has allowed for measurement of the levels of uniaxial stress imparted to both skeletal muscle and rendered adipose tissue by the shock. In addition, the lateral stress component generated within adipose tissue during shock loading has also been investigated. The techniques employed in this study have allowed for equation-of-state relationships to be established for the investigated materials, highlighting non-hydrodynamic behaviour in each type of tissue over the range of investigated impact conditions. While the adipose tissue selected in this work has been shown to strengthen with impact stress in a manner similar to that seen to occur in polymeric materials, the skeletal muscle tissues exhibited a ow strength, or resistance to compression, that was independent of impact stress. Both the response of the adipose material and tested skeletal muscle tissues lie in contrast with the shock response of ballistic gelatin, which has previously been shown to exhibit hydrodynamic behaviour under equivalent loading conditions. Plate-impact experiments have also been used to investigate the shock response of a homogenized variant of one of the investigated muscle tissues. In the homogenized samples, the natural structure of skeletal muscle tissue, i.e. a fibrous and anisotropic composite, was heavily disrupted and the resulting material was milled into a fine paste. Rather than matching the response of the unaltered tissues, the datapoints generated from this type of experiment were seen to collapse back on to the hydrodynamic response predicted for skeletal muscle by its linear equation-of-state (Us = 1.72 + 1.88up). This suggests that the resistance to compression apparent in the data obtained for the virgin tissues was a direct result of the interaction of the shock with the quasi-organized structure of skeletal muscle. A soft-capture system has been developed in order to facilitate post-shock analysis of skeletal muscle tissue and to ascertain the effects of shock loading upon the structure of the material. The system was designed to deliver a one-dimensional, at-topped shock pulse to the sample prior to release. The overall design of the system was aided by use of the non-linear and explicit hydrocode ANSYSR AUTODYN. Following shock compression, sections of tissue were imaged using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both an auxetic-like response and large-scale disruption to the I-band/Z-disk regions within the tissue's structure were observed. Notably, these mechanisms have been noted to occur as a result of hydrostatic compression of skeletal muscle within the literature.
Supervisor: Hazell, P.; Appleby-Thomas, G. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Shock compression ; Soft tissue simulants ; Shock (Mechanics) ; Soft tissue injuries