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Title: An immunohistopathological and functional investigation of β3 integrin antagonism as a therapeutic strategy in cancer : characterisation, development, and utilisation of preclinical cancer models to investigate novel β3 integrin anatgonists
Author: Alshammari, Fatemah O. F. O.
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2013
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Tumour cell dissemination is a major issue with the treatment of cancer, thus new therapeutic strategies which can control this process are needed. Antagonism of integrins highly expressed in tumours is one potential strategy. The integrins are transmembrane glycoprotein adhesive receptors. Two of the integrins, αVβ3 and αIIbβ3, are highly expressed in a number of tumours and induce bi-directional signalling through their interaction with extracellular matrix proteins, and growth factor receptors. Through this signalling they play an important role in a number of cellular processes that are involved in tumour dissemination such as tumour growth, migration, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. Dual αIIbβ3 and αVβ3 integrin antagonism will have a direct effect on β3-expressing tumour cells that leads to the inhibition of cell migration and dissemination. Furthermore, through targeting tumour cell interaction with endothelial cells and platelets, this will also lead to inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis. The aim of this project was to characterise the expression of αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin in a panel of tumour cell lines and in human tumour xenograft samples, and to develop and utilise cell-based models to investigate potential novel β3 antagonists. The expression of αV and β3 subunits was detected in xenograft tissue using immunoblotting techniques. A panel of cell lines of different tumour types including melanoma, prostate, breast, colon and non small cell lung carcinoma was then characterised for αVβ3 and αIIbβ3 integrin expression using immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Melanoma cell lines demonstrated the strongest αVβ3 expression. No αIIbβ3 integrin expression was seen in any of the cell lines evaluated. A selection of cell lines with varying αVβ3 expression were then used to develop a functional test for cell migration, the scratch wound healing assay. Migration of tumour cells that expressed αVβ3 integrin was inhibited by the known β3 antagonists, cRGDfV peptide and LM609 antibody. A panel of 12 potential novel β3 integrin antagonists was screened for cytotoxicity and activity in the validated scratch assay. ICT9055 was the most effective antagonist in inhibition of M14 cell migration as determined by the scratch assay, with an IC₅₀ of < 0.1 μM. Therefore the work presented in this thesis has established models and tools for evaluating potential novel β3 integrin antagonists, and identified a promising molecule to progress for further preclinical evaluation.
Supervisor: Shnyder, Steven D.; Sheldrake, Helen M.; Patterson, Laurence H. Sponsor: Public Authority for Applied Education and Training (PAAET)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Integrins ; aIIbß3 ; aVß3 ; Integrin antagonists ; Tumour cell migration ; Histopathology of integrin expression ; Cancer therapy