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Title: The Indian pharmaceutical industry 1965 to 2005 : an institutional and historical account
Author: Field, K. R.
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2007
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While other perspectives had predicted the decline of the industry or only explained its growth for a portion of the time period studied, I find that an institutional perspective offers a new way to interpret the growth of the Indian pharmaceutical industry. I find that the institutions of applied research and development (R&D) and the production of generic drugs were critical resources that differentiated the indigenous Indian pharmaceutical industry and its products and were tied to its growth. Third, I add to institutional theory research by using the Indian pharmaceutical industry history to illustrate that institutional persistence can play a different, more positive, role in enabling growth and progress than previously thought. Prior to 1970, the Indian pharmaceutical industry institutionalised norms, standards and practices for R&D. The focus of ‘Indian R&D’ was to build upon existing intellectual property; medicines that had been invented in the West were adapted and improved to fit conditions in India. After 1970, changes to Indian patent law allowed the Indian pharmaceutical industry to produce medicines that were still covered by product patents in other countries. It has often incorrectly been assumed that the growth of the Indian pharmaceutical industry resulted from the weak patent law in India after 1970. Actually, it is unlikely that the industry could have thrived as it did after 1970 if applied R&D and the production of generic drugs had not been institutionalised prior to the change in regulatory regime. Between 1995 and 2005, after joining the World Trade Organization, India changed its patent law again to conform to the standard in the West. The industry was predicted to decline. However, it continued to grow, becoming a critical supplier of affordable medicines to treat HIV/AIDS and expanding into the off-patent generic drugs market in the West.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available