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Title: Porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering
Author: Arumugam, M. Q.
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2009
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The aim of this thesis is to investigate the behaviour of cells in porous scaffolds. Three types of porous scaffold were investigated; porous phase-pure hydroxyapatite, porous silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite and a novel mineralised (brushite) collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffold. Methods were derived to optimise the seeding of cells within these scaffolds and the differentiation of bone and marrow-derived cells in short-term culture was investigated using molecular biology and ELISA techniques. Novel techniques were developed to assess the response of cells within the centre of the scaffolds. The effect of soluble silicon on bone-derived cells was also investigated to consider reasons for the enhanced cell differentiation seen with porous silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite scaffolds as compared with porous phase-pure hydroxyapatite. All three scaffold types were able to maintain bone and marrow-derived cells in short term culture up to 21 days. However, the composite mineralised collagen-GAG was found to sustain the greatest number of cells and appeared to promote greater differentiation of cells in the 7-21 day period. A 6-week in vivo sheep bone model was performed to assess the clinical viability of the mineralised collagen-GAG as a bone substitute material. Three types of calcium phosphate/collagen/GAG composite, namely hydroxyapatite, brushite and octacalcium phosphate were compared to unmineralised collagen-GAG and autograft controls. Subsequent analysis of bone formation revealed that, while there was no statistical difference between the three mineral-incorporating composites, they all produced more new bone within porous scaffolds than unmineralised collagen-GAG, but, as expected, less than for the autograft control. It is concluded that the calcium-phosphate collagen-GAG composite offers the clinical prospect of hard-soft tissue replacement mimicking the bone-cartilage interface.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available