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Title: The buckling of capillaries in tumours
Author: MacLaurin, James Normand
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Capillaries in tumours are often severely buckled (in a plane perpendicular to the axis) and / or chaotic in their direction. We develop a model of these phenomena using nonlinear solid mechanics. Our model focusses on the immediate surrounding of a capillary. The vessel and surrounding tissue are modelled as concentric annulii. The growth is dependent on the concentration of a nutrient (oxygen) diffusing from the vessel into the tumour interstitium. The stress is modelled using a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient F=F_e F_g. The stress is determined by substituting the elastic deformation gradient F_e (which gives the deformation gradient from the hypothetical configuration to the current configuration) into a hyperelastic constitutive model as per classical solid mechanics. We use a Blatz-Ko model, parameterised using uniaxial compression experiments. The entire system is in quasi-static equilibrium, with the divergence of the stress tensor equal to zero. We determine the onset of buckling using a linear stability analysis. We then investigate the postbuckling behaviour by introducing higher order perturbations in the deformation and growth before using the Fredholm Alternative to obtain the magnitude of the buckle. Our results demonstrate that the growth-induced stresses are sufficient for the capillary to buckle in the absence of external loading and / or constraints. Planar buckling usually occurs after 2-5 times the cellular proliferation timescale. Buckles with axial variation almost always go unstable after planar buckles. Buckles of fine wavelength are initially preferred by the system, but over time buckles of large wavelength become energetically more favourable. The tumoural hoop stress T_{ThetaTheta} is the most invariant (Eulerian) variable at the time of buckling: it is typically of the order of the tumoural Young's Modulus when this occurs.
Supervisor: Roose, Tiina; Chapman, Steven Sponsor: Oxford University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Biology and other natural sciences (mathematics) ; Mechanics of deformable solids (mathematics) ; Partial differential equations ; Ordinary differential equations ; Tumour pathology ; Tumours ; tumour ; elasticity ; nonlinear ; solid mechanics ; capillary ; collapse ; buckle