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Title: Infant and early childhood pneumonia and early onset neonatal sepsis in Maela camp for displaced persons
Author: Turner , Claudia
Awarding Body: Open University
Current Institution: Open University
Date of Award: 2012
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Background An estimated nine million children under five years of age die each year. The largest numbers of deaths are from pneumonia. Another common cause of death is early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS), with an estimated half a million neonates dying annually. Methods This thesis comprises three studies that were conducted over a five-year period in Maela camp for displaced persons on the Thailand-Myanmar border. The first study: a cohort study focussed on pneumorua that followed 955 children from birth until two years of age. Pneumonia episodes were diagnosed using WHO criteria and investigations taken included chest x-ray, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, serum sodium, blood culture and a nasopharyngeal aspirate. Potential risk factors for pneumonia were examined. The second study: a three year observational study capturing all episodes of clinically diagnosed EONS occurring in infants born in Maela camp. The final study: a cross sectional study of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) carriage. Vaginal-rectal swabs, collected during labour from 675 women were processed to determine the GBS carriage rate and serotype prevalence, Results The incidence of clinical pneumonia was 0.73 (95% CI 0.7O-D.75) episodes per child year, with one third of cases being associated with RSV infection. From April 2009 until April 2012 the incidence of EONS was 42.1 per 1000 live births. None were associated with proven GBS infection. The maternal GBS carriage rate in the study population was 12.0% (95% CI 9.4- II 15.0). Conclusion We found a high incidence of WHO defined clinical pneumonia in children less than two years of age living in a crowded but rural community in Thailand, with RSV being commonly detected during a pneumonia episode. Despite EONS being a common cause of neonatal death globally, there were no deaths from EONS in the study described in this thesis.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available