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Title: Molecular, biochemical and pharmacological characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bd-I oxidase : a putative therapeutic target
Author: Hafiz, Taghreed
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most devastating diseases in humans. Nowadays, tuberculosis therapy is not sufficient to control the TB epidemic and only lasts for 6 months to cure patients and prevent relapse; therefore, the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is particularly challenging (1). New antibiotics, mainly those that are derived from new chemical classes, are more likely to be more effective against resistant strains. Moreover, expanding the knowledge of the mode of action of drugs has important implications in tackling TB. Only empirical approaches can be adopted in the journey of discovering new anti-tubercular drugs until a clear picture of latency and persister cells’ physiology is achieved. Mtb has the extraordinary ability to survive under hypoxia, suggesting a high degree of metabolic plasticity. The flexibility conferred by a modular respiratory system is critical to the survival of Mtb, thereby also making it a promising area of research for new drug targets. This thesis aimed towards the characterisation of cytochrome bd-I quinol oxidase (bd-I), a respiratory component that is believed to operate during both the replicative and “dormant” Mtb phenotypes. The essential nature of Mtb bd-I, which has no human homologue, has been confirmed in a recent deep sequencing study of genes required for Mtb growth by Griffin et al. (2), further confirming its potential as a novel target. Recombinant Mtb bd-I was successfully expressed under the control of the pUC19 lac promoter in the Escherichia coli ML16 bo3/bd-I and MB44 bo3/bd-I/bd-II knockout strains, allowing “noise-free” measurement of the enzyme. Initial steady-state kinetics of the enzyme was presented using a range of quinol substrates, revealing a substrate preference for dQH2 over Q1H2 and Q2H2. A number of bd-I inhibitors were identified and their pharmacodynamic profiles against Mtb H37Rv were determined. In addition, a pharmaco-metabolomics platform was initiated to explore the cellular response of Mtb to current first-line TB drugs as well as in house bd-I and type II NADH inhibitors. The initial findings are discussed in the context of the known mode of action of the drugs and future research needs in drug discovery of this devastating disease.
Supervisor: Biagini, Giancarlo; Ward, Steve A. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
Keywords: RA Public aspects of medicine ; RM Therapeutics. Pharmacology