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Title: The politics of the United Kingdom-Scandinavian trade relationship within the context of the European Free Trade Association
Author: Archer, Clive
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 1975
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This thesis is a study of the political relationships between Britain and the three Scandinavian countries within the European Free Trade Association, 1960 to 1968. The particular relevance of studying these four countries within this context will be explained in the Introduction. However, some definitional notes are needed at this early stage. I have taken "Scandinavia" to cover Denmark, Norway and Sweden. When Finland is included, this will be specifically stated but the study as a whole does not cover this country---it is only brought in when it affects the relationships between the other Scandinavian states and the United Kingdom. She "Nordic countries" include not only the three Scandinavian states but also Finland and Iceland, although in general usage the terra often excludes one or both of these countries. I will try to make clear which lands are covered by this term either by specifically stating them or by the context. Whilst the distinction between the terms "Nordic states" and "Scandinavia" as adopted here is useful, I found that within Scandinavia, it was often blurred or non-existent. This leads on to a more definite misuse of terms. In some of the speeches made by Scandinavian or continental politicians, the United Kingdom is referred to as 'England'. This will be allowed to pass without any further comment or 'sic' annotations. 1968 has been chosen as the limiting date for the study for several reasons, it allows coverage of the first two applications by the United Kingdom for membership negotiations with the E.E.C., the major internal crisis in BFTA---Britain's a surcharge on industrial imports in 1964, and the completion of industrial free trade within EFTA at the end of 1966. It also permits some comment on the problems facing EFTA after December 1966. As this includes issues that were not always resolved by the end of 1968, then in such cases I have not been bound by the limitation of the title. After the introduction, the thesis is divided into five sections. The first section covers the economic aspects of EFTA which, will be referred to throughout the thesis. It covers not only the economic development of poet 2nd World War Western Europe, hut also, gives brief monographs of the development of the British and Scandinavian trading positions in this period. The second section is introductory and attempts to build up the stage on which the four countries acted out their parts in EFTA's history. Chapter 2 deals with the situation in Western Europe from 1945 until the early 1950's, paying special attention to British attitudes towards European integration efforts and the various European institutions created during this time, Chapter 3 gives an outline of Scandinavian history with particular reference to attempts at closer co-operation between the three countries and the reasons why some of 'these efforts failed'. This chapter covers the Scandinavian reaction to events on the continent of Europe in the half decade after the last war and their own further attempts at working together on the international scene. The third sector deals with the immediate pre-history of the events leading to the formation of the European Free Trade Association. EFTA was not created in a vacuum but was the result of long negotiations for a wider free trade area (Chapter 4-) which led to the establishment of the "Maudling Committee" of O.E.E.C. (Chapter 5) and finally to the division of Western Europe between the Six Community countries and the seven members of EFTA. The main, section of the work Is devoted to the working of EFTA from. 1960 to 1968 and, in this context, the relationship of the Scandinavian states and Britain during the period. As it happens, a historical division of EFTA's existence can also be typified by the major events therein. After the agreement on the Stockholm Convention which led to the establishment of EFTA (Chapter 7), and the first year of EFTA's life (Chapter 8), Chapter 9 covers the 1961-3 period during which many of the EFTA states started negotiations with the SEC and Chapter 16 deals with the EFTA members' response to the breakdown of these negotiations. The following chapter discusses the period from October 1964 when the United Kingdom created a crisis of confidence within the organisation by attempts to solve her balance of payments problems, This particular episode was weathered and finally the Association began functioning in 1967 as a fully fledged industrial free trade area. But the achievement of Indus- trial-free trade did not solve the question of F.FEA members' relations with the EEC (Chapter 12) and it also highlighted certain problems connected with the relationship of the members amongst themselves (Chapter 13). The final part of the thesis is. the conclusion which includes a quantitative evaluation of the relationships of Britain and the Scandinavian members of EFTA, The appendix contains the Stockholm Convention and other relevant documents.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available