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Title: Onchocerca volvulus (Leuckart) : its occurrence and pathological manifestations in the southern Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and its significance in the etiology of 'endemic blindness'
Author: Cruickshank, Alexander
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 1934
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The occurrence of human Onchocerciasis has not previously been reported from the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. It is my intention to show that the nematode Onchocerca Volvulus (Leuckart 1893) has a wide distribution in the southern Sudan, and that it, with its microfilariae, give rise to a variety of pathological conditions including grave ocular troubles, and that it is a parasite of serious economic importance, and not merely of academic interest. For the past six years I have been engaged on sleeping Sickness and Leprosy campaigns in the southern Sudan, and have come into close touch with the native population and learned much of their habits and customs, and got a working knowledge of some of their dialects. This experience has been invaluable in the necessarily rather interrupted researches into onchocerciasis, and has allowed one to pass fairer and more critical judgment on the often highly imaginative statements of natives. Microfilariae were often found in gland juice and blood smears during routine Trypanosomiasis inspections, and elephantiasis and hydroceles formed the basis of ones surgical practice, but the former were always imagined to be Microfilariae Wuchereria Bancrofii and the latter their sequelae. Some three years ago it was noticed that in certain arears an appreciable proportion of the young adult population were blind or had serious eye symptoms or complained of »night blindness». In 1932 Dr. Bryant, a colleague of mine working in Rumbek district described the disease as a retino-choroiditis and sometimes associated with signs of keratitis, iritis, iridocyclitis and synechiae. He pointed out that although "Simulium Damnosum", the vector, had not been found, the possibility of Onchocerca Volvulus as the cause must be borne in mind. Later, in 1933, he identified microfilariae of Onchocerca Volvulus in a case of hydrocele in the Heridi district. Since then a careful study of cases of elephantiasis, hydroceles, skin diseases, tumour formations, and of eye conditions has been made, the incidence and distribution of Onchocerca Volvulus roughly mapped out, and also the incidence of the insect vector. Other possible causal factors have been investigated, and a certain amount of experimental work done. Pathological specimens have been collected and examined by experts in London. The results of these investigations will be given and my arguments for considering Onchocerca Volvulus capable of causing those serious pathological changes set forth. A digest and historical review of the more important literature and a description of the parasite precedes the main Thesis.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Onchocerca volvulus ; Onchocerciasis ; Parasites