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Title: Soot characterisation in diesel engines using laser-induced incandescence
Author: Oger, Benoit
Awarding Body: University of Brighton
Current Institution: University of Brighton
Date of Award: 2012
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Nowadays, the European automotive market is dominated by Diesel engines. Despite their high efficiency, these produce significant levels of pollutants. Among the various pollutants released, nitrogen oxides and soot are the main issues. Their formation is linked to the combustion process and attempts to reduce one often lead to an increase of the other. Laser diagnostics are among the best tools for experimental, non-intrusive studies inside combustion chambers for a better understanding of the complex combustion processes. Depending on the optical diagnostic, numerous combustion characteristics and processes can be investigated. The work presented here intends initially to develop a quantitative laser technique for characterising soot and, secondly, to further the knowledge on soot formation in Diesel engines by the application of this technique in an optical combustion chamber. Some of the main characteristics describing soot formation are the soot volume fraction, number density and particle sizes. Soot volume fraction is the major one as it is representative of the volume of soot produced. Planar characterisation of soot volume fraction, number density and particle size were achieved for the first time by simultaneous recording laser-induced incandescence (LII), laser scattering and two-colour time-resolved (2C-TiRe) LII signals. Qualitative planar distributions of particle diameter and soot volume fraction were derived from the image ratio of scattering and incandescence signals. 2C- TiRe LII technique allowed the simultaneous recording of the temporal LII signal for two different wavelengths in order to obtain quantitative values of the laser-heated particles temperature, soot volume fraction and particle size for a local or global part of the flame. These were used to recalibrate relative size and soot volume distributions. An initial development of the technique was performed on a laminar diffusion flame (Santoro burner) to validate its viability and performance. Equivalent temperature, soot volume fraction and particle diameter were determined throughout the flame. The results were found to be in good agreement with the ones published in the literature. The diagnostic was subsequently applied to an optical Diesel rapid compression machine, and further refinements were undertaken to cope with the higher soot concentration and lower LII signal. Tests were conducted for in-cylinder pressures ranging from 4 to 10 MPa, and injection pressures up to 160 MPa. A fixed injection timing and injected fuel quantity were used. Effects of in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection pressure and cetane number on soot formation and characteristics were observed. High injection pressure, cetane number and in-cylinder pressure caused a reduction of soot particle size and volume fraction but an increase of the soot particle density.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: G000 Computing and Mathematical Sciences ; H330 Automotive Engineering