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Title: Defining the role of γδ cells in bone loss associated with chronic inflammation
Author: Pappalardo, Angela
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2013
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The extensive infiltration of immune cells in the joints of patients affected by rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and the subsequent production of pro-inflammatory cytokines triggers bone erosion through the extensive stimulation of bone resorbing osteoclasts (OCs). The activity of γδ T cells has been implicated to influence the onset and severity of the disease pathology in murine models of human RA. With this study the effects of γδ T cells for influencing OC differentiation and resorptive activity were assessed in vitro. Activated γδ T cells exerted inhibitory effects on OC differentiation and resorptive activity, these effects were mediated by the release of soluble factors, since similar inhibitory effects were obtained using conditioned medium (CM) from activated γδ T cells. The primary mediator of such effects was determined to be IFN, since neutralisation markedly restored OC differentiation and resorptive activity. γδ T cell proliferation, activation and survival following culture with autologous mature OCs were assessed by flow cytometry. Interestingly, OCs and OC-derived CM induced activation of γδ T cells as determined by the expression of the early activation marker CD69. A mediator of this stimulatory effect on T cells was found to be TNF, since neutralisation of TNFα decreased the stimulatory effect of OCs on CD69 expression. Consistently, OCs, but not OC-derived CM, increased the proliferation of IL-2-stimulated γδ T cells and also supported the survival of resting γδ T cells. This study provides new insights into the in vitro interactions between human γδ T cells and OCs, moreover it defines osteoclasts as immune competent cells capable of influencing the activation status and the viability of T lymphocytes, and provide evidence for a novel stimulatory effect of OCs on γδ T cells.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Nuffield Foundation ; Oliver Bird Rheumatism Programme
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Osteoclast inhibition ; T cells