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Title: Malaria elimination modelling in the context of antimalarial drug resistance
Author: Maude, Richard James
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
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Introduction: Antimalarial resistance, particularly artemisinin resistance, is a major threat to P. falciparum malaria elimination efforts worldwide. Urgent intervention is required to tackle artemisinin resistance but field data on which to base planning of strategies are limited. The aims were to collect available field data and develop population level mathematical models of P. falciparum malaria treatment and artemisinin resistance in order to determine the optimal strategies for elimination of artemisinin resistant malaria in Cambodia and treatment of pre-hospital and severe malaria in Cambodia and Bangladesh. Methods: Malaria incidence and parasite clearance data from Cambodia and Bangladesh were collected and analysed and modelling parameters derived. Population dynamic mathematical models of P. falciparum malaria were produced. Results: The modelling demonstrated that elimination of artemisinin resistant P. falciparum malaria would be achievable in Cambodia in the context of artemisinin resistance using high coverages with ACT treatment, ideally combined with LLITNs and adjunctive single dose primaquine. Sustained efforts would be necessary to achieve elimination and effective surveillance is essential, both to identify the baseline malaria burden and to monitor parasite prevalence as interventions are implemented. A modelled policy change to rectal and intravenous artesunate in the context of pre-existing artemisinin resistance would not compromise the efficacy of ACT for malaria elimination. Conclusions: By being developed rapidly in response to specific questions the models presented here are helping to inform planning efforts to combat artemisinin resistance. As further field data become available, their planned on-going development will produce increasingly realistic and informative models which can be expected to play a central role in planning efforts for years to come.
Supervisor: Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Lisa J.; Dondorp, Arjen M. Sponsor: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ; Wellcome Trust ; MD Honours ; Li Ka Shing Foundation
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Tropical medicine ; Parasitology ; Infectious diseases ; Malaria ; Medical sciences ; Ordinary differential equations ; Epidemiology ; Biology and other natural sciences (mathematics) ; Mathematics ; Computer science (mathematics) ; modelling ; mathematical ; elimination ; eradication ; artesunate ; artemisinin ; resistance ; Cambodia ; Bangladesh ; falciparum