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Title: A study of the effects of adding ice retardant additives to pavement surface course materials
Author: Wright, Michael
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2013
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The formation of ice and snow on pavement surfaces is a recurring problem, creating hazardous driving conditions, restricting public mobility as well as having adverse economic effects. Current winter operations primarily consist of the correctly timed application of de-icing chemicals to the pavement surface to prevent hazardous conditions occurring. It would be desirable to develop new and improved ways of modifying the pavement surface, to prevent or at least delay the buildup of ice and to weaken the pavement-ice bond; making the ice which forms easier to remove. This development could lead to economic, environmental and safety benefits for winter service providers and road users. Recent research has identified “promising” chemical additives, which appear to have the potential to provide suitable anti-icing performance, as well as meeting requirements relating to the pavement surface life, economic and environmental factors. However, research relating to performance and durability of chemically modified asphalt for anti-icing purposes and the mechanisms by which the chemicals are transferred to the pavement surface is severely limited. The research described in this thesis attempts to contribute to the field by assessing the impact that the “promising” chemical modifications of sodium formate and sodium silicate have on the anti-icing performance and durability of asphalt. The research provides extensive data on how the chemically modified asphalt behaves in terms of the compactability, stiffness, fatigue, permanent deformation and skid resistance, relative to standard asphalt surface courses, under standard testing conditions and after high moisture absorption. The research provides a better understanding of how the chemical additive can be transferred from bitumen mastics and bituminous materials to the pavement surface. The study also assesses the potential reductions in freezing point and ice adhesion that can be produced by the specific chemical concentrations. The study evaluates laboratory test results in conjunction with three full scale site trials in the UK designed to better replicate the variability in winter weather conditions and trafficking. The study concludes that the addition of de-icing chemical formulations consisting of sodium formate and sodium silicate do not significantly reduce the asphalt performance when subjected to a number of standard asphalt test methods, including compactability, stiffness, permanent deformation and skid resistance. The inclusion of de-icing chemical formulations can however, lead to an increased susceptibility to deterioration in the presence of water, combined with an ability to absorb moisture from the atmosphere. Site trials have demonstrated that this can lead to an increased risk of early life failure and reduce service life of the pavement surface course. The thesis recommends that revised screening tests and bituminous mix design procedure is developed for assessing potential de-icing chemical formulations, which places particular emphasis on the performance of asphalt in the presence of moisture/water. The study concludes that de-icing chemical formulations can be transferred from within the bitumen mastic to the pavement surface. The chemical transfer to the pavement surface is heavily dependent on the relative humidity and the number and arrangement of surface voids. The transfer of de-icing chemical formulations to the pavement surface can reduce the freezing point of the pavement surface and/or reduce the ice adhesion.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TE Highway engineering. Roads and pavements