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Title: Real-time tracking for airborne broadband ultrasound
Author: Alloulah , Mohammed
ISNI:       0000 0004 2751 6744
Awarding Body: Lancaster University
Current Institution: Lancaster University
Date of Award: 2011
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Context refers to a collection of elements with which people associate situations. The location and state of objects in an environment constitute an important subset of context, which has been thoroughly researched and established. By tracking the movement of people and objects within an environment, context-aware applications may be realized, enabling a host of interaction schemes that are intuitive, utilitarian, and fun. Many sensing technologies have been shown to supply tracking services to context-aware systems. These sensing technologies are complementary, and none possesses all desirable tracking attributes for all situations. The preference for the use of a particular tracking technology is often much dependent on the application at hand. Ad hoc, mobile applications are particularly hard to satisfy, given their dynamic nature and the centralized, infrastructure-reliant arrangement of most of the accurate tracking systems available. The first part of this dissertation describes methods for embedded, real-time airborne broad band ultrasonic tracking. The tracker has been built around the assumption of a mobile operation that is deployed ad hoc and upon demand. In order for this to happen, the embedded, real-time operation of sensor nodes has been emphasized. The efficient signalling designs that make way for multiuser, ad hoc tracking deployment have been thoroughly characterized, and shown to perform close to their infrastructure-reliant counterparts. System-level parameterization of tracking is also possible subject to application needs. The remainder of this work shows for the first time in literature that real-time Doppler processing in the airborne broadband ultrasonic modality is possible, whereby velocity inference of mobile nodes is facilitated. Building on advancements from underwater acoustics research, a complex Doppler receiver has been derived and characterized. Its implications on real-time realizations have been studied and characterized utilizing a high-level synthesis architectural exploration methodology. This has revealed that it is feasible to implement real-time Doppler tracking for airborne broadband ultrasound using modern reconfigurable fabrics (i.e. FPGAs). The dissertation concludes by examining the applicability of findings on even more complex forms of processing such as multiuser direction-of-arrival estimation by means of beamforming, and binary Doppler-tolerant reception.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available