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Title: Neuromuscular co-ordination and adaptation to targeted training in healthy children
Author: Dehkordi, Khadijeh Kiani
ISNI:       0000 0004 2747 8637
Awarding Body: Liverpool John Moores University
Current Institution: Liverpool John Moores University
Date of Award: 2012
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In daily living activities motor control improves through adaptation. The experience from the daily living indicates that activation of the muscular function requires a full combination of predicting, anticipating and repeating the correct skills e.g. standing balance. For this adaptive process to be successful accurate somatosensory, visual and vestibular sensory inputs are required. With practice, the nervous system learns to correctly respond to sensory stimuli. Therefore, repetition and practising of multiple motor skill tasks are essential pre-requisites for functional improvement. The Targeted Training (IT) equipment has been used to treat children with neurological disorders. The theory of IT is based on the idea that external perturbations provide challenging tasks which allows the child to explore the development of balance control as well as stimulating all sensory systems that one associates with postural perturbations. Having knowledge about the potential of healthy children's responses to perturbation to Targeted Training can help to find out the expectation from children with neurological disorders by the process of adaptation to the same device. The overall aim of the study programme was to determine the neuromuscular co-ordination and adaptation to Targeted Training (IT) in healthy children. This aim was achieved by: (a) Production of a working system using the IT apparatus combined with XSens 3D orientation sensor and Surface Electromyography (sEMG); (b) establishing the validity of the XSens sensor; (c) establishing the repeatability of sEMG. Study 1 aimed to establish the accuracy of the XSens sensors with respect to the Qualisys Track Manger (QTM) camera based motion capture system which can be regarded as a 'gold standard' measurement of 3D position and orientation. In the validity study XSens sensors, consisting of a wearable motion capture system which is able to calculate roll, pitch and yaw in real time and outputting calibrated 3D linear acceleration, and the Targeted Training Equipment (ITE) were used in order to produce the same amplitude and frequency of movements for each trial. The angle produced from the QTM was compared to two angles derived from the XSens Pitch and the angular velocity from the gyroscope, by calculating Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD). A significant association was found between the QTM and XSens systems producing less than I degree error in the angle between the two systems tested for a dynamic position. Therefore XSens sensor is a suitable device for tracking the different positions of movement in the clinical area. Study 2 aimed to establish the repeatability of sEMG on selected right and left paired muscles of Rectus Abdominis (RRA & LRA) and Para Spinal (RPS & LPS) within-session and between-sessions, during bending forward and backward in functional tasks on four healthy subjects. The results of the investigation showed moderate repeatability in the three trials for subjects one and two. The values for subject three and four both within and between sessions were lower. However, these values were lower than those reported in the literature, therefore, the repeatability of sEMG data in the selected task was considered to be moderate to good. Study 3 aimed to develop a working system using the ITE combined with inertial XSens sensor recording 3D orientation and surface electromyography by applying the external perturbations to standing position in order to determine the neuromuscular co-ordination and adaptation to Targeted Training (IT) in children. After several trials were applied to children's standing balance in the ITE, results were statistically significant by the main effect of trial number on activated muscle responses in typical IT movements. A significant reduction in head-pelvis angle over time was found. Also all muscle groups from the three different segments of neck, trunk and thigh showed a large reduction of activity over time, the largest reduction was for the thigh muscles and the lowest was for neck muscles. The main finding was that the healthy children adapted to the IT task after the third session by using less muscle activity to control their balance against external perturbation. iii •
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available