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Title: How can palm oil be modified to give improved dietary benefits?
Author: Zainal, Zaida
ISNI:       0000 0004 2749 1778
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2006
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Bovine chondrocyte cell cultures represent an experimental system that can be used to study arthritis in vitro and this was used in the work reported here. The relative effectiveness of different fatty acids in reducing inflammatory responses was studied using these cultures. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) proved to be most effective n-3 PUFA compared to docosahexaenoic (DHA) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), in suppressing the levels of mRNA for pro-inflammatory proteins (COX-2, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNF-1alpha), aggrecanases (ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-3 and MMP-13) in the bovine monolayer cultures which had been induced by IL-1alpha. Arachidonic acid (AA), an n-I6 PUFA, had no effect on these mRNA levels. Similarly, hydrolysed palm olein had no consistent affect, showing that neither of these fatty acid preparations could be regarded as anti-inflammatory. Microscopic examination of the cells in culture showed some evidence for destructive effects on IL-1alpha stimulation and this was reduced by EPA. Moreover, this was confirmed when GAG release was examined. The latter was increased by IL-1alpha exposure and this was reduced by n-3 PUFAs with EPA being the most effective. To increase the potential value of palm olein products, the n-3 PUFAs, alpha-linolenic acid and EPA were incorporated into palm olein through lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions. Palm olein, which had been modified with EPA, was tested for its anti-inflammatory properties. It was found to reduce GAG release, and the levels of mRNA for various inflammatory proteins (COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta) and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. These results showed that it is possible to modify palm olein by interesterification to yield an oil with improved nutritional properties.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available