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Title: Housing in urban India
Author: Sangma, Christi
ISNI:       0000 0004 2748 4201
Awarding Body: Cardiff University
Current Institution: Cardiff University
Date of Award: 2006
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The aim of the study is to look at an integrated approach to sustainability of urban shelter settlements in India in various socio-economic groups in relation to how they respond to global pressures and local needs. Within a more global framework, recommendations made in this study can be applicable to other developing countries facing similar short-term and long-term development problems. A literature review of present the shelter situation with respect to social, economic, environmental, political and technogical aspects in terms of local and global influences and impacts provides the background data and focus to a series of case studies. Six case studies of urban housing settlements were conducted in two stages—A and B. The A and B category case studies are based on questionnaire and interview surveys across a range of socio-economic groups, identified in the literature review, namely, the economically weaker sections and the low, middle and high-income group households. Respondents' inputs from the surveys on various aspects and shelter issues have contributed to a better understanding of the user-shelter relationship and needs at the local level. The study indicates that shelter in urban India is needed to sustain immediate social needs and economic activities. Shelter provision is prioritised by the public sector but issues like user needs, shelter quality and negative impacts on the environment are not. At present government bodies are unable to address quantitative and qualitative aspects of shelter, manifested in the informal sprawling squatter settlements, which provide shelter to the economically weaker sections and the low-income groups. These groups use little in terms of energy, and they recycle waste. In that respect these settlements support sustainable principles, to an extent by default due to financial constraints, but their quality of life is poor. The more formal middle-income and high-income housing are more resource and energy intensive, dependent on mechanical systems and have minimum passive design facilities, but have a better quality of life. This suggests that, for individuals, quality of life is important but concern for environment and awareness about environmental issues is low. Also present technology and building material options adopted are energy intensive suggesting a low concern for resource and energy efficiency among various stakeholders. This suggests that shelter is not based on integrated best practice approaches demonstrated in various successful projects such as the low-income group housing in Kerela case study. The following are recommended as a way forward: awareness programs catering for all, a top-down bottom-up approach, future proof house design (designing for upgrading and flexibility), and use of efficient building materials with durable and affordable characteristics. It is also recommended that mixed land-use planning should be carried out, with access to employment opportunities, services etc. taken into consideration when deciding on the location of housing settlements.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available