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Title: Energy efficient radio frequency system design for mobile WiMax applications : modelling, optimisation and measurement of radio frequency power amplifier covering WiMax bandwidth based on the combination of class AB, class B, and C operations
Author: Hussaini, Abubakar Sadiq
ISNI:       0000 0004 2747 8098
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2012
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In today's digital world, information and communication technology accounts for 3% and 2% of the global power consumption and CO2 emissions respectively. This alarming figure is on an upward trend, as future telecommunications systems and handsets will become even more power hungry since new services with higher bandwidth requirements emerge as part of the so called 'future internet' paradigm. In addition, the mobile handset industry is tightly coupled to the consumer need for more sophisticated handsets with greater battery lifetime. If we cannot make any significant step to reducing the energy gap between the power hungry requirements of future handsets, and what battery technology can deliver, then market penetration for 4G handsets can be at risk. Therefore, energy conservation must be a design objective at the forefront of any system design from the network layer, to the physical and the microelectronic counterparts. In fact, the energy distribution of a handset device is dominated by the energy consumption of the RF hardware, and in particular the power amplifier design. Power amplifier design is a traditional topic that addresses the design challenge of how to obtain a trade-off between linearity and efficiency in order to avoid the introduction of signal distortion, whilst making best use of the available power resources for amplification. However, the present work goes beyond this by investigating a new line of amplifiers that address the green initiatives, namely green power amplifiers. This research work explores how to use the Doherty technique to promote efficiency enhancement and thus energy saving. Five different topologies of RF power amplifiers have been designed with custom-made signal splitters. The design core of the Doherty technique is based on the combination of a class B, class AB and a class C power amplifier working in synergy; which includes 90-degree 2-way power splitter at the input, quarter wavelength transformer at the output, and a new output power combiner. The frequency range for the amplifiers was designed to operate in the 3.4 - 3.6 GHz frequency band of Europe mobile WiMAX. The experimental results show that 30dBm output power can be achieved with 67% power added efficiency (PAE) for the user terminal, and 45dBm with 66% power added efficiency (PAE) for base stations which marks a 14% and 11% respective improvement over current stateof- the-art, while meeting the power output requirements for mobile WiMAX applications.
Supervisor: Abd-Alhameed, Raed A.; Rodriquez, Jonathon; McEwan, Neil J. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Radio frequency ; Power amplifier ; Doherty technique ; Modulation ; Matching network ; Power Added Efficiency (PAE) ; Non-linearity ; Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) ; WiMAX