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Title: Efficiency of soil aquifer treatment in the removal of wastewater contaminants and endocrine disruptors : a study on the removal of triclocarban and estrogens and the effect of chemical oxygen demand and hydraulic loading rates on the reduction of organics and nutrients in the unsaturated and saturated zones of the aquifer
Author: Essandoh, Helen Michelle Korkor
ISNI:       0000 0004 2747 5524
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2011
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This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) under different loading regimes, using wastewater of much higher strength than usually encountered in SAT systems, and also to investigate the removal of the endocrine disruptors triclocarban (TCC), estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2). SAT was simulated in the laboratory using a series of soil columns under saturated and unsaturated conditions. Investigation of the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC), nitrogen and phosphate in a 2 meter long saturated soil column under a combination of constant hydraulic loading rates (HLRs) and variable COD concentrations as well as variable HLR under constant COD showed that at fixed HLR, a decrease in the influent concentrations of DOC, BOD, total nitrogen and phosphate improved their removal efficiencies. It was found that COD mass loading applied as low COD wastewater infiltrated over short residence times would provide better effluent quality than the same mass applied as a COD with higher concentration at long residence times. On the other hand relatively high concentrations coupled with long residence time gave better removal efficiency for organic nitrogen. Phosphate removal though poor under all experimental conditions, was better at low HLRs. In 1 meter saturated and unsaturated soil columns, E2 was the most easily removed estrogen, while EE2 was the least removed. Reducing the thickness of the unsaturated zone had a negative impact on removal efficiencies of the estrogens whereas increased DOC improved the removal in the saturated columns. Better removal efficiencies were also obtained at lower HLRs and in the presence of silt and clay. Sorption and biodegradation were found to be responsible for TCC removal in a 300 mm long saturated soil column, the latter mechanism however being unsustainable. TCC removal efficiency was dependent on the applied concentration and decreased over time and increased with column depth. Within the duration of the experimental run, TCC negatively impacted on treatment performance, possibly due to its antibacterial property, as evidenced by a reduction in COD removals in the column. COD in the 2 meter column under saturated conditions was modelled successfully with the advection dispersion equation with coupled Monod kinetics. Empirical models were also developed for the removal of TCC and EE2 under saturated and unsaturated conditions respectively. The empirical models predicted the TCC and EE2 removal profiles well. There is however the need for validation of the models developed
Supervisor: Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H. A. Sponsor: Netherlands Organisation for International Cooperation in Higher Education (Nuffic)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Artificial wastewater ; Endocrine disrupting compounds ; Estrogens ; Hydraulic loading rate ; Removal efficiency ; Saturated zone ; Soil aquifer treatment ; Triclocarban ; Unsaturated zone ; Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) ; Chemical oxygen demand (COD)