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Title: Effects of Solanum lycocarpum fractions on ruminal fermentation
Author: Lima Neto , Helio
ISNI:       0000 0004 2744 8016
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2012
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Naturally occurring over in the vast majority of Brazil, Solanum Iycocarpum (SL) was investigated as a potential feed ingredient for ruminants. The chemical analyses showed that Crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and the three measurements of fibrous fractions (Neutral-detergent fibre, acid-detergent fibre and acid-detergent lignin) varied significantly amongst SL plant anatomical fractions (P<0.05). Specifically with regards to CP, the values found for the flower (21.25%) and for the leaf (18.21) suggest that these parts can be an alternative source of protein for ruminants. The flower fraction showed the highest amount of Total Phenols (TP) (2.32 mg/g OM) compared in particularly with the relatively low amounts in the stem (0.54 mg/g OM) and root (0.34 mg/g OM) (P<0.05). Condensed Tannins levels were very high for all SL fractions compared to the levels found in traditional forages. The highest amounts were found in the leaf and flower fractions (16.3 and 16.2 mg/g OM respectively). Saponins levels were at moderate levels especially in the fruit and leaf (2.5 and 2.2 mg/g OM). The main secondary metabolites found in the Iypophilic extract were plant sterols (stigmasterol in leaf and stem, gamma sistosterol in leaf, stem and flower, campesterol in leaf and stem), vitamin derivatives (pantalactone in the fruit), antioxidants (tetratriacontane in the fruit) and plant fatty acids (9,12 octadecadienoic acid in the root, stigmast-5-en-3-01, oleate the flower). The in vitro trials which investigated S. Iycocarpum fractions as ruminant additives showed that the leaf fraction (10 g/Kg OM inclusion) had the highest effect when added to the lucerne and increased ruminal the Acetate: Propionate (P<0.05). When SL fractions were evaluated with incubated ryegrass hay, root and stem fractions decreased Ace: Prop (P<0.05). In the in vitro studies methane production was reduced by the addition of flower fraction of S. Iycocarpum when lucerne (under 1.5 mg/g DM of CH4) or ryegrass (under 0.5 mg/g DM of CH4) formed the basal forage (P<0.05), which is evidence of the potential of S. Iycocarpum to mitigate methanogenesis in livestock production systems.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available