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Title: Blood pressure and its correlates in children and adolescents in urban Nigeria
Author: Ogboye, Oluwatoyin
ISNI:       0000 0004 2748 6290
Awarding Body: University of Warwick
Current Institution: University of Warwick
Date of Award: 2012
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Background: A substantial increase in the incidence of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and a decline in communicable diseases and poverty-related diseases are occurring in developing countries (including Nigeria) as a result of an epidemiological transition. Given the burden and poor outcomes of NCDs related to hypertension or high blood pressure (BP) in adulthood, there is an urgent need for the identification of high risk individuals in early life. High BP has already been reported amongst young people worldwide, including Nigeria. High BP in childhood is predictive of high BP in adulthood. There is very little information available on the distribution of blood pressure in children and adolescents, and the factors which determine its distribution in Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the association between: socio-economic characteristics and blood pressure, pubertal maturation status and blood pressure, and anthropometric measures of adiposity and blood pressure in children and adolescents in Nigeria; and also to determine the overall prevalence of hypertension in the population of secondary school aged children and adolescents in Nigeria. Methods: A school-based stratified randomised cross-sectional survey of students aged 11 to 18 years was carried out in the urban area of Lagos, Nigeria. Blood pressure, body weight, height and waist measurements of the participants were obtained. A self-complete validated questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic information, health-related information, socio-economic characteristics (including living circumstances and parent/carer education level) and pubertal maturation status of the participants. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Results: 1086 students (538 males and 548 females) participated in the study, giving a total response rate of 90.5%. The overall mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 105.23±12.63mmHg and 57.87±8.09mmHg, respectively. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 2.5%. Socio-economic characteristics, pubertal maturation status, body mass index and waist circumference were statistically significantly associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that the epidemiological transition exists and is having measurable effects in school children in Nigeria. The findings highlight the presence of hypertension, and also the need for investigation of factors associated with blood pressure in children and adolescents so as to guide health policy, public health preventive interventions and health practice for child and adolescent hypertension. This study has long term implications for an extra burden of chronic non-communicable diseases related to hypertension in Nigeria.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: RA Public aspects of medicine ; RC Internal medicine ; RJ Pediatrics