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Title: Chemical modification of cellulose substrates with carboxylic acids and phosphorus containing acids
Author: Yang, Liangyu
ISNI:       0000 0004 2746 8252
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2009
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The principle objectives of this research were to chemically modify cellulose using either carboxylic acids or phosphorus containing acids. Carboxylic acids were reacted with isocyanic acid derived from sodium cyanate, in order to synthesise reactive anhydrides, amides and polyamide compounds. The application of these intermediate compounds to cellulose was in tempted. The phosphonation of cellulose using phosphorous acid resulted in a substrate which exhibited flame retardant properties. Firstly, the stability and the nature of the reagents were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and Capillary electrophoresis (CE). Secondly, the process of phosphonation was investigated to determine the optimum reagents / concentrations / pH and other application conditions on various cellulose substrates. The treated cotton fabrics were found to give excellent flame retardancy; such fabrics were analysed by different technique, including FTIR, FT -Raman, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), fluorescence microscopy and cationic dye staining. All the analysis results clearly showed that these phosphonation treatments introduced flame retardant properties to cotton fabrics which were durable to repeated alkaline launderings. The results of this research have been used to help launch a commercially viable flame retardant product. Compared to other products currently occupying the market huge advantages in terms of avoidance of formaldehyde are evident.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available