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Title: Three-dimensional device structures for photovoltaic applications
Author: Urban, H.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2747 2964
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
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Harnessing solar energy has become a promising clean and renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels since the development of low-cost dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC) and organic photovoltaic solar cell devices. Their power-conversion efficiencies, below 13% and 9% respectively, still limit the economic viability of these technologies. The geometry and optical properties of photonic crystals can be used to improve the absorption and charge collection efficiencies of these devices. This thesis describes the fabrication of TiO2 DSSC and ZnO-polymer solar cell devices based on a three-dimensional photonic crystal structure. Photonic crystal polymer structures were produced by holographic lithography and thermally stabilized in order to be used as templates for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of various metal oxides. For this purpose, an ALD apparatus was built and ALD processes for the growth of TiO2, ZnO, Al2O3, ZnO:Al, and Zr3N4 were established and deposited on photonic crystal templates. After ALD, the template was removed by calcination at 500°C, at which ZnO:Al films lost their conductivity of 250 S/cm preventing their use as transparent conducting oxide (TCO) electrodes. The produced 90 nm TiO2 photonic crystal shell DSSC and TiO2 inverse replica devices based on the dye N-719 and iodine/iodide redox electrolyte provided power-conversion efficiencies of 0.9% and 0.49% respectively and their diffusion lengths were 2× and 3× longer than that of a nanocrystalline reference device respectively. ZnO-polymer devices, comprising a P3HT layer as absorber and PEDOT:PSS film as hole-transporter, were also investigated.
Supervisor: Turberfield, A. J. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: condensed matter physics ; applied physics ; photovoltaic devices ; semiconductors ; solar cells ; photovoltaics ; dye sensitized ; periodic microstructures