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Title: The gravitationally lensed galaxy IRAS FSC10214+4724
Author: Deane, Roger Paul
ISNI:       0000 0004 2746 4737
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
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We present a multi-wavelength analysis of IRAS FSC10214+4724 from radio to X-ray wavelengths. This is a gravitationally lensed galaxy at a redshift z=2.3 (3 Gyr after the Big Bang) which hosts prodigious star formation as well as an obscured active nucleus. We derive a new lens model for the system employing a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm with extended-source, forward ray-tracing. An array of spatially resolved maps (radio, millimetre, near-infrared, optical) trace different physical components which enables a high resolution, multi-wavelength view of a high-redshift galaxy beyond the capabilities of current telescopes. The spatially-resolved molecular gas total intensity and velocity maps reveal a reasonably ordered system, however there is evidence for minor merger activity. We show evidence for an extended, low-excitation gas reservoir that either contains roughly half the total gas mass or has a different CO-to-H_2 conversion ratio. Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is used to detect what we argue to be the obscured active nucleus with an effective angular resolution of <50 pc at z=2.3. The source plane inversion places the VLBI detection to within milli-arcseconds of the modeled cusp caustic, resulting in a very large magnification (mu > 70) which is over an order of magnitude larger than the derived co magnification. This implies an equivalent magnification difference between the starburst and AGN components, yielding significant distortion to the global continuum spectral energy distribution (SED). A primary result of this work is therefore the demonstration that emission regions of differing size and position within a galaxy can experience significantly different magnification factors (> 1 dex) and therefore distort our view of high-redshift, gravitationally lensed sources. This not only raises caution against unsophisticated uses of IRAS FSC10214+4724 as an archetype high-redshift Ultra-Luminous Infra-Red Galaxy (ULIRG), but also against statistical deductions based on samples of strong lenses with poorly constrained lens models and spatially-unresolved detections. Analogous to the continuum SED distortion quantified in this thesis, we predict a distortion of the CO spectral line energy distribution of IRAS FSC10214+4724 where higher order J lines, that are increasingly excited by the AGN and shock heating from the central starburst, will be preferentially lensed owing to their smaller solid angles and closer proximity to the AGN, and therefore the cusp of the caustic. This distortion is predicted to affect many high redshift lenses and will be tested most synergistically by the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and the Atacama Large Millimetre Telescope (ALMA).
Supervisor: Rawlings, Steven Gregory Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Physical Sciences ; Physics ; astrophysics ; strong gravitational lensing