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Title: Mechanistic studies on 2-oxoglutarate dependent oxygenases
Author: Szollossi, Andrea
ISNI:       0000 0004 2745 0749
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
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The first identfied 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) dependent oxygenase was a collagen modifying enzyme in the work by Hutton et al. in 1967. Subsequent work has revealed that 2OG dependent oxygenases are a large family with diverse biological roles. With small molecule substrates, these enzymes catalyse a wide range of oxidative reactions, including those that form part of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. The currently accepted consensus mechanism for catalysis by 2OG-dependent oxygenases is based on crystallographic data, kinetics and on quantum chemical calculations. The consensus mechanism involves oxidative decarboxylation of 2OG by reaction with an oxygen molecule producing CO2, succinate and a reactive oxidising species that reacts with the 'prime' substrate. Deacetoxycephalosporin C synthase (DAOCS) is a 2OG-dependent oxygenase involved in cephalosporin biosynthesis. The mechanism of DAOCS is of particular interest because it has recently been proposed to be different from the consensus mechanism. The new mechanism proposal from Valeg ard et al. is primarily based on high-resolution crystallographic data with support from steady-state kinetic experiments and quantum-chemical calculations. The work in discussed in this thesis aimed to test the proposal of Valegård et al. by using a combination of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods analysing enzyme-substrate interactions. Substrate binding was investigated using both protein-observe (Chapter 3) and ligand-observe (Chapter 4.1 and 4.2) methods. Preliminary UV-visible data on enzyme-substrates complex formation was also obtained. The strength of substrate and cosubstrate binding was characterised through dissociation constant measurement. An activity assay (Chapter 2) that allows for direct and simultaneous monitoring of 2OG decarboxylation and penicillin ring expansion was optimised. Both the ligand-observe and protein-observe binding experiments as well as the preliminary UV-visible data indicate that the formation of a ternary complex between DAOCS, 2OG and the penicillin substrate is viable. The activity assay conclusively showed that in the presence of unnatural substrates, such as penicillin G, 2OG oxidation is significantly uncoupled from penicillin oxidation. Uncoupled turnover does not occur in the presence of the natural substrate, penicillin N, which is an aspect that should be considered in the analysis of the steady-state kinetic data. Overall, the results provide evidence that, the consensus mechanism for 2OG-dependent oxygenases is viable for DAOCS, at least in the presence of the natural substrate, penicillin N. It is possible that in the presence of an unnatural substrate, the catalytic process undergoes a more complex mechanism, possibly with the direct involvement of reducing agents in the system.
Supervisor: Schofield, Christopher J. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Antibiotics ; Biophysical chemistry ; Biosynthesis ; Catalysis ; Chemical biology ; Chemical kinetics ; Mass spectrometry ; NMR spectroscopy ; Natural products ; Organic chemistry ; Protein chemistry ; Spectroscopy and molecular structure ; 2OG oxygenases ; enzyme mechanism ; uncoupled turnover