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Title: Evaluation of strain circulation and the epidemiology of enteric fever caused
Author: Karkey, Abhilasha
ISNI:       0000 0004 2744 8681
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
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Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are a major public health concern in Kathmandu. The aim of this thesis was to identify and assess the population most at risk by investigating epidemiologic trends of enteric fever within a subset population of Kathmandu. Therefore,the burden and incidence of enteric fever within the study population and the seasonal and gender distribution of enteric fever was assessed. Considerable burden of enteric fever, unrelated to population density, correlating with the seasonal fluctuations in rainfall was observed. This thesis also aimed to improve the understanding of enteric fever transmission by identifying probable transmission routes,hence various water and food samples were analysed and the extent of faecal contamination in them was determined. S. Typhi isolates were sequenced and genotyped and combined with GPS data to longitudinally study the local distribution and infer transmission of this human restricted bacterial pathogen. Extensive clustering of typhoid independent of population size and density and existence of an extensive range of genotypes within typhoid clusters including individual households with multiple cases was observed. These observations predict that indirect transmission had an overwhelming contribution for disease persistence, potentially through contaminated water. Consistent with this hypothesis, S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A were detected in water supplies and it was observed that typhoid was spatially associated with public water sources and low elevation. A concurrent case-control study was also conducted which allowed for the determination of risk factors in the population at risk. These studies imply that resources should be allocated toward controlling the most important vectors of enteric fever, including food sold by vendors, chlorination of drinking water, construction of proper water distribution and sewage networks,vaccination campaigns and hygiene education.
Supervisor: Baker, Stephen Gerard; Farrar, Jeremy; Dolecek, Christiane Sponsor: Wellcome Trust ; Oxford University
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Medical Sciences ; Clinical laboratory sciences ; Clinical microbiology ; Infectious diseases ; Epidemiology ; Enteric fever ; Kathmandu ; Typhi ; Paratyphi ; strain circulation