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Title: Analogues of antibacterial natural products
Author: Heaviside, Elizabeth Anne
ISNI:       0000 0004 2744 2773
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
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Analogues of Antibacterial Natural Products Elizabeth Anne Heaviside, St Catherine’s College, University of Oxford DPhil Thesis, Trinity Term 2012 This thesis is concerned with the synthesis and biological evaluation of structural mimics for the natural products 16-methyloxazolomycin and lemonomycin which display potent biological activity including antibacterial and antitumour activity. Chapter 1 explores methods and approaches to the discovery of new antibacterial drugs and the challenges faced in this respect. It also gives an overview of the properties of the natural products investigated in the following chapters and summarises previous synthetic approaches to these molecules published in the scientific literature. Chapter 2 describes the work carried out towards the synthesis of the diazabicyclo[3.2.1]octane unit of the tetrahydroisoquinoline antitumour antibiotic lemonomycin. The intended retrosynthesis of the natural product led to a 2,5-disubstituted pyrrolidine bearing a 1ʹ-amino functional group; a series of routes were explored for the synthesis of this unit. Using (S)-pyroglutamic acid, strategies using Eschenmoser and thiolactim ether coupling reactions were investigated. A sequence based on the formation of a pyrrolidine ring from the cyclisation of an appropriately substituted oxime ether derived from L-phenylalanine was then implemented but a competing Beckmann rearrangement/Grob fragmentation prevented access to the desired heterocycle. Preliminary investigations were also carried out on the modification of cyclic imines derived from oxime ethers which did not undergo Beckmann rearrangement. Chapter 3 describes the synthesis of a library of densely functionalised tetramic acid and pyroglutamate mimics for the right-hand fragment of 16-methyloxazolomycin, and their coupling with a gem-dimethylamide unit mimicking the middle fragment of the natural product. Tetramates were accessed through the Dieckmann cyclisation of N-acyloxazolidines and were derivatised with various alkyl halides. The pyroglutamates were accessed via the highly diastereoselective aldol cyclisation of N-acyloxazolidines formed by the amide coupling of a threonine derived oxazolidine and β-keto-acids. A series of β-keto-acids were synthesised through the acylation and subsequent ring-opening/decarboxylation reaction of Meldrum’s acid. The formation of right-hand/middle fragment adducts was explored using cycloaddition, alkylation and Sonogashira chemistry before a Wittig protocol led to the formation of adducts (E)- and (Z)- 402 and 403. Biological evaluation of the compounds synthesised in this chapter was carried out using both broth and hole-plate bioassays and active compounds were identified. Of particular note was that the Wittig adducts displayed a higher level of activity against Gram-negative E. coli than either the pyroglutamate or amide motifs alone.
Supervisor: Moloney, Mark Sponsor: EPRSC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Chemistry & allied sciences ; Antibiotics ; Biomimetic synthesis ; Heterocyclic chemistry ; Natural products ; Organic chemistry ; Organic synthesis ; Spectroscopy and molecular structure ; Synthetic organic chemistry ; NMR spectroscopy ; Synthesis ; Natural Product ; Antibiotic ; Antibacterial ; Lemonomycin ; Oxazolomycin ; 16-Methyloxazolomycin