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Title: Spatially-induced momentum transfer over water-worked gravel beds
Author: Cooper, James Russell
ISNI:       0000 0004 2741 9506
Awarding Body: University of Sheffield
Current Institution: University of Sheffield
Date of Award: 2007
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The spatial variability in turbulent flows over water-worked gravel beds has been studied. Spatially distributed measurements of velocity were obtained using Particle Image Velocimetry for a range of hydraulic conditions over two water-worked gravel beds. A different approach to bed formation was achieved by feeding sediment into a flume to form deposits that result from the, arrangement of the grains by the flow, as would be observed in a river. It was shown that, even over macroscopically flat deposits, time-averaged streamwise velocities display considerable spatial variability. However, the level of variability was a magnitude lower for time-averaged vertical velocities. The degree of spatial variability in both streamwise and vertical velocities was shown to increase with relative submergence. Spatial flow variability was present in the logarithmic and outer regions of the flow, which contradicts previous thinking that spatial variability is only present in the near bed form-induced sublayer. The time-averaged flow velocities displayed a considerable degree of organisation over both beds, indicating the existence of spatially coherent time-averaged flow structures. Form-induced stresses caused by the spatial heterogeneity in the flow were estimated. These were found to be significant for flows over both beds, and did not disappear above the form-induced sub layer as previously thought. Measurements of Reynolds stress alone, whether spatially-averaged or not, cannot be used to determine the mean bed shear stress over water-worked gravel beds. Increases in relative submergence resulted in changes in the level of momentum carried by spatial deviations in the flow, and by inference, those carried by the turbulent fluctuations. This occurred even when the average rate of momentum transfer at the bed was the same. It was concluded that relative submergence could have a more important influence on the spatial variability of fluid stresses than the bed surface topography of water-worked gravel deposits.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available