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Title: Investigating fruit consumption in a snacking context
Author: McGill, Rory
ISNI:       0000 0004 2742 0590
Awarding Body: Queen's University Belfast
Current Institution: Queen's University Belfast
Date of Award: 2012
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Fruit may not be perceived as a viable snack option due to a number of barriers (Jack et al, 1997; 1998). The aim of this thesis was to determine the reasons that fruit is not chosen as a snack (while other snack foods are), to examine these in depth and to make recommendations for further intervention. It was discovered via an exploratory diet diary study that the four most frequent reasons given for choosing a non fruit item as a snack (pleasure, availability, hunger/satiety, convenience) were also the four most frequent reasons for not consuming fruit as a snack. Each was examined in turn. Flavour nutrient conditioning was used to attempt to increase pleasure ratings in participants who were hungry (in the context of a starter) and less hungry (snacking context), with only main effects of time giving an increase in pleasure ratings. A location manipulation of availability in a profit driven environment resulted in an increase in fruit purchase frequency in a snacking context when fruit was placed at the point of purchase. In an investigation of hunger/satiety, a preload study revealed that high (dried) and low (fresh) energy density fruit provided satiety equivocal to a biscuit, while the fresh fruit was perceived as more filling. In a second study, where fresh fruit and dried fruit were provided as snacks, dried fruit was chosen more frequently when hungry in free living individuals. Finally, fruit in a more convenient form (pre prepared and packaged apple) had no long term effect on fruit consumption. These findings suggest that manipulations of availability and hunger/satiety are more likely to be beneficial compared to manipulations of pleasure or convenience. Future interventions should focus on hunger/satiety and availability as these may have the greatest potential to increase fruit consumption as a snack.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available