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Title: Preparation of initiators for sustainable polymerisation
Author: Hancock, Stuart
ISNI:       0000 0004 2740 7919
Awarding Body: University of Bath
Current Institution: University of Bath
Date of Award: 2013
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Current plastics are mostly derived from petrochemical sources, as it is a finite resource renewable replacements are sought after. Polymers derived from cyclic esters such as; lactide, valerolactone and caprolactone are of interest. An industrially viable method of producing stereocontrolled polylactide (PLA) from rac-lactide is desired. Previous work on poly(cyclic esters) is overviewed in chapter 1 with an emphasis upon PLA. Chapter 2 reports the coordination of Ti(OiPr)4 to homo/piperazine bridged bis(phenol) (salan) ligands. Under ambient conditions bimetallic structures were produced and a steric dependent equilibrium system is discussed. Forcing conditions resulted in monometallic homopiperazine salan complexes. Their application for the ring-opening-polymerisation (ROP) of rac-lactide is investigated. Homo/piperazine salan titanium catecholates were synthesised and their cytotoxicity investigated by collaborators. Chapter 3 details the synthesis of monometallic homopiperazine salan zirconium/hafnium isopropoxide complexes. Their utility for the ROP of rac-lactide in solution and solvent free systems are discussed. Bimetallic or tetrametallic solid state structures from attempts to coordinate Zr(IV)/Hf(IV) metals to piperazine salan ligands are also discussed. Chapter 4 discusses the complexation of AlMe3 with homopiperazine salan ligands. The resulting monometallic complexes were inactive for the ROP of lactide. Benzyl alcohol derivatives were synthesised and trialled for solvent free ROP of rac-lactide, δ-valerolactone, ε-caprolactone. Co-polymerisations were investigated and a tri-block polymer of poly(ε-caprolactone/δ-valerolactone/rac-lactide) was prepared. Chapter 5, trans-1,4-DACH salen ligands were synthesised and investigated as ligands with Al(III), Ti(IV), Zr(IV), and Zn(II) metal centres. Bimetallic Al(III) and Ti(IV) structures were characterised and trialled for the ROP of rac-lactide. Isotactic PLA was reported for aluminium complexes, dependent upon phenoxy substituents, and these polymerisations were shown to be immortal in nature. Chapter 6 details the synthesis of trans-1,2-DACH salalen ligands which were complexed to AlMe3, these initiators were investigated for the solution ROP of rac-lactide. The further synthesis of benzyloxy derivatives is also reported and they were utilised for solution and solvent free polymerisations of rac-lactide. The initiator’s behaviour is discussed with respect to varying amine and imine groups.
Supervisor: Jones, Matthew Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: polymers ; lactide ; polylactide ; PLA ; cyclic esters ; titanium ; zirconium ; hafnium ; aluminium