Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: An investigation of gender influences on transformational leadership style in the Greek hospitality industry
Author: Marinakou, Evangelia
ISNI:       0000 0004 2743 6859
Awarding Body: University of Strathclyde
Current Institution: University of Strathclyde
Date of Award: 2012
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Although women have increased in management positions in recent years, they are still under-represented proportionally compared to men. The paucity of women in management holding significant roles in organisations initiated research on gender similarities and differences in leadership roles and interest in the relationship between gender and transformational leadership. Male and female managers are found by many to employ different leadership styles, while more recent studies suggest there is little or no difference in the result men and women achieve as leaders. Evidence of research in this area is not conclusive as the findings are based on a limited number of studies, usually conducted in small samples or specific case studies, therefore this study is conducted in response to the need for further research and for more recent evidence. Transformational leadership has drawn attention from management researchers in the context of hospitality management. This concept includes certain behaviours of leaders who are considered to be role models for their followers, which brings trust and makes them achieve high goals. These leaders motivate with communicating an inspiring vision, often with the use of symbols and emotional appeals. This leadership style has been identified as appropriate and effective in hospitality management. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the nature of the transformational leadership concept and investigate gender differences among female and male managers in their use of transformational leadership in the context of the Greek hospitality industry. The research took place in Greece focusing on the hotel industry. The research encompasses both quantitative and qualitative approaches considering the views of male and female managers, their peers, subordinates and superiors. The quantitative research used the Multifactor Leadership Questionnnaire (MLQ), which was distributed to the managers' subordinates, peers and superiors, to 621 participants, to investigate their evaluations on the managers' most exhibited leadership styles. At the same time, the MLQ was given to 30 managers in the study to self-evaluate their leadership style. Additionally, these 30 hotel managers, both male and female, were interviewed to explore their own perceptions of their leadership style, and their considerations on effective and poor leadership, in an effort to identify relations to the results of the MLQ. This thesis proposes that transformational leadership style is the most effective leadership style in hospitality management in Greece. This style is found to be statistically significantly effective and to be exhibited similarly by both male and female managers in the study. The findings suggest that male and female managers did not ascribe to their traditional gender roles, as they exhibited both masculine and feminine characteristics whenever appropriate, given the circumstances. Therefore, both are found to be effective as long a s they exhibit tranformational leadership and contingent reward leadership behaviours. No significant differences were shown between male and female leaders in their overall transformational leadership behaviours. Male leaders are found to imitate feminine behaviours in order to be effective and efficient. There were however, significant differences between leaders self-ratings and staff evaluations on different transformational leadership dimensions. Moreover, the model of transformational leadership is found to be applicable to the Greek hospitality management and culture. The findings also suggest that the glass-ceiling phenomenon is evident in the Greek hospitality industry, nevertheless female managers have found ways to overcome the barriers that prevented them from progressing, and the future for them in management seems to be improving as they have started acquiring high managerial positions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available