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Title: Microwave-assisted sequential extraction of polyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements from urban environmental solids
Author: Gibson, David
ISNI:       0000 0004 2743 0641
Awarding Body: University of Strathclyde
Current Institution: University of Strathclyde
Date of Award: 2010
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A method has been developed for the sequential extraction and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from urban substrates using microwave-assisted micellar extraction, the BCR sequential extraction procedure (BCR-SEP) and microwave-assisted aqua regia digestion. High performance liquid chromatography - ultraviolet detector was used for the determination of PAH. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry were as used for the determination of PTEs. The method was developed using certified reference materials (CRMs) and several urban substrates. The determination of PTE by the developed sequential method was compared to a single step aqua regia digestion, with recoveries of 80.9-107% (without PAH extraction) and 82.3-97.1% (with PAH extraction) and statistical comparison showed no significant differences between these two procedures for most PTE. A significant difference was observed in the determination of manganese, which with extraction using the BCR-SEP was shown to be due to a large fraction of the metal being removed in the water-soluble/ extractable stage and subsequently extracted by the water based micellar extractant. The micellar extracts required clean-up using solid phase extraction and pre-concentration by evaporation under nitrogen for determination of PAH. The analysis was applied to extracts from Glasgow urban substrates for the determination of 16 priority pollutant PAH. The co-elution of two sets of isomers meant only 14 eluates could be readily detected and poor detection for some species also affected detection. Application of the method to a CRM showed low recoveries (7-48 %) of PAH and subsequently the developed method could only be used to screen for these species. The method was applied to urban sediment collected from locations around Glasgow. The highest concentration of the urban metals copper and zinc were observed from a busy city centre street, and also showed the highest relative levels of PAH.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral