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Title: The role of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and its regulatory proteins in the development of insulin resistance in cell culture models
Author: Ryan, Alexander
ISNI:       0000 0004 2740 9762
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2013
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Insulin resistance, a key risk factor for type 2 diabetes, can be defined as when cells fail to respond effectively to insulin. In striated muscle and fat, this manifests as impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake due to reduced plasma membrane insertion of the glucose transporter GLUT4. In cell culture models, insulin resistance induced by chronic exposure to insulin, endothelin-1 or glucosamine, is correlated with reduced immunoreactivity of the lipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) in plasma membrane sheets. However, the reason for this decrease, and whether other factors that induce insulin resistance affect PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, is unknown. Using L6 skeletal muscle myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, this project has investigated whether PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels are perturbed in insulin resistance induced by several factors, including exposure to insulin, oxidative stress, and treatment with tumour necrosis factor α, endothelin-1 or angiotensin II (Ang II).All these pre-treatments were found to abolish insulin-stimulated 3H 2-deoxy-glucose uptake, and significantly decrease PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels, measured in cell extracts by quantitative blotting using a PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific probe, developed from the PH domain of phospholipase C (PLC) δ. Importantly the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake can be restored by replenishing PtdIns(4,5)P2 in L6 myotubes treated with insulin and Ang II. PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels are regulated by three families of proteins; PIP kinases, which synthesise it, phosphatases, which remove phosphate groups from the inositol headgroup, and PLCs, which hydrolyse it. Membrane preparations from Ang II- and insulin-induced insulin resistant L6 myotubes showed no differences in PtdIns(4,5)P2 production or dephosphorylation. However a significant increase in PLC activity was detected in membranes from insulin resistant cells and membrane localisation of PLCβ family members was increased in insulin resistant cells. Furthermore, studies using PLC inhibitors show a restoration of PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels in insulin resistant cells, leading to partial reversal of insulin resistance.This study therefore shows a causal link between decreased PtdIns(4,5)P2 levels and insulin resistance in L6 myotubes, and that PLCs are the reason for the PtdIns(4,5)P2 decrease in Ang II- and insulin-induced insulin resistance. PLCs, or their activation pathways, may thus be a novel target for combating insulin resistance, and preventing type 2 diabetes.
Supervisor: Dunne, Mark; Hinchliffe, Katherine Sponsor: Diabetes UK
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: insulin resistance ; type 2 diabetes ; phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate ; phospholipase C