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Title: A critique of models for body composition and energy-balance components in childhood and adolescence
Author: Haig, Caroline E.
ISNI:       0000 0004 2736 5827
Awarding Body: University of Glasgow
Current Institution: University of Glasgow
Date of Award: 2013
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It is well known that, in Western countries, people of all ages and both sexes are becoming ‘fatter’ in general. In a ‘healthy’ population, we arbitrarily consider cut-offs to be that 10% of people should be ‘overweight’ and 5% ‘obese’, as there is limited evidence that these cut-off points are related to ill-health. However, we are seeing a dramatic rise in the numbers of people in each of these categories. The mechanism behind weight gain is energy-imbalance. At energy-balance for adults - i.e. where weight is expected to remain stable over time, we know that: energy intake (EI) = energy expenditure (EE) This equation is far less straightforward than it first appears. The first important issue is that EE has several different components (e.g. resting EE). The second issue is to do with measurement - how do we measure energy intake and energy expenditure? Another is down to physiological differences between people - how do things vary between individuals and do they differ systematically between males and females, adults and children? The above equation applies to adults, but we know that children and adolescents actually require a positive imbalance for healthy growth - what is not known is what degree of positive imbalance is healthy. This thesis is particularly concerned with energy-balance and imbalance during puberty, at which time the human body goes through extreme changes. We investigate how these changes are measured, and how energy-imbalance and the modelling thereof must change across this time. We will show that the proportions of children who are overweight and obese are higher than we would expect; commonly used models for body composition are not in agreement; commonly used models for resting energy expenditure are not in agreement; children do not need a high energy-imbalance for normal growth; and those girls with early menarche are more likely to become overweight than their counterparts.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: QA Mathematics ; RJ101 Child Health. Child health services