Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: The influence of selected flavonoids on the survival of retinal cells subjected to different types of oxidative stress
Author: Tengku Kamalden, Tengku Ain Fathlun Bt
ISNI:       0000 0004 2733 8554
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
Availability of Full Text:
Full text unavailable from EThOS.
Please contact the current institution’s library for further details.
The general aim of the thesis was to deduce whether selected naturally occurring flavonoids (genistein, epicatechin gallate (EC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), baicalin) attenuate various secondary insults that may cause death of ganglion cells in primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). An ischemic insult to the rat retina significantly causes the inner retina to degenerate indexed by changes of various antigens, proteins and mRNAs located to amacrine and ganglion cells. These changes are blunted in animals treated with genistein as has been shown for ECGC. Studies conducted on cells (RGC-5 cells) in culture showed that hydrogen peroxide, L-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO)/glutamate and serum deprivation (mimicking oxidative stress), rotenone, sodium azide (affecting mitochondria function in specific ways) and light (where the mitochondria are generally affected) all generated reactive oxygen species and caused death of RGC-5 cells. EGCG was able to attenuate cell death caused by hydrogen peroxide, sodium azide and rotenone. Only EC was able to attenuate BSO/glutamate-induced cell death, in addition to cell death caused by hydrogen peroxide and rotenone. Genistein had no positive effect on cell death in experiments carried out on RGC-5 cells. Exposure of RGC-5 cells to flavonoids showed that EC and EGCG increased the mRNA expression of endogenous antioxidants such as HO-l (heme oxygenase 1) and Nrf-2 (nuclear erythroid factor-z-related factor 2). Light insult, rotenone and sodium azide activate the p38 (protein kinase 38) pathway, while only light and rotenone activate the JNK (c-Jun amino-terminal kinase) pathway. Serum deprivation affects mitochondrial apoptotic proteins causing an increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl2 (Bax: Bcl-2-associated X protein; Bcl-2: B-cell lymphoma 2). An insult of light to RGC-5 cells, unlike that induced by sodium azide, is inhibited by necrostatin-I and causes an activation of AlF (apoptosis-inducing factor) with alpha-fodrin being unaffected. These studies suggest that ganglion cell death caused by insults as may occur in POAG involves various cellular signaling pathways. The selected flavonoids have diverse actions in increasing cellular defense mechanisms, and in negating the effects of ischemia and specific types of oxidative stress. The results argue for the possible use of flavonoids in the treatment of POAG to slow down ganglion cell death.
Supervisor: Osborne, Neville Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Flavonoids ; Retinal ganglion cells ; Retinal degeneration--Animal models ; Open-angle glaucoma