Title:

Pictures of processes : automated graph rewriting for monoidal categories and applications to quantum computing

This work is about diagrammatic languages, how they can be represented, and what they in turn can be used to represent. More specifically, it focuses on representations and applications of string diagrams. String diagrams are used to represent a collection of processes, depicted as "boxes" with multiple (typed) inputs and outputs, depicted as "wires". If we allow plugging input and output wires together, we can intuitively represent complex compositions of processes, formalised as morphisms in a monoidal category. While string diagrams are very intuitive, existing methods for defining them rigorously rely on topological notions that do not extend naturally to automated computation. The first major contribution of this dissertation is the introduction of a discretised version of a string diagram called a string graph. String graphs form a partial adhesive category, so they can be manipulated using doublepushout graph rewriting. Furthermore, we show how string graphs modulo a rewrite system can be used to construct free symmetric traced and compact closed categories on a monoidal signature. The second contribution is in the application of graphical languages to quantum information theory. We use a mixture of diagrammatic and algebraic techniques to prove a new classification result for strongly complementary observables. Namely, maximal sets of strongly complementary observables of dimension D must be of size no larger than 2, and are in 1to1 correspondence with the Abelian groups of order D. We also introduce a graphical language for multipartite entanglement and illustrate a simple graphical axiom that distinguishes the two maximallyentangled tripartite qubit states: GHZ and W. Notably, we illustrate how the algebraic structures induced by these operations correspond to the (partial) arithmetic operations of addition and multiplication on the complex projective line. The third contribution is a description of two software tools developed in part by the author to implement much of the theoretical content described here. The first tool is Quantomatic, a desktop application for building string graphs and graphical theories, as well as performing automated graph rewriting visually. The second is QuantoCoSy, which performs fully automated, modeldriven theory creation using a procedure called conjecture synthesis.
