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Title: Application of magnetic resonance for non-invasive phenotyping of mice with altered metabolism
Author: Faller, Kiterie Maud Edwige
ISNI:       0000 0004 2738 7858
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2011
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Changes in myocardial energetics have been implicated in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). However, the precise contribution of creatine (Cr) / phosphocreatine (PCr) / creatine kinase (CK) energy buffer and transfer remains unclear. The aim of this thesis was to study the effects on murine cardiac function of both impairment and enhancement of creatine metabolism. In order to longitudinally follow the cause and effect relationship of myocardial creatine concentration, a non-invasive method of quantification was required. Cardiac Cr levels measured in vivo by 1H-MRS were therefore compared with gold-standard invasive HPLC and found to correlate over a wide-range (r2=0.91). 1H-MRS was reproducible for measuring Cr levels in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. The cardiac phenotype of a novel model of creatine depletion, the AGAT-/- mouse, was characterized using in vivo MRI, 1H-MRS and LV catheterisation, under conditions of gradually reducing Cr concentrations; zero Cr; and attempted phenotype rescue with dietary Cr. For the first time in the heart, the rate of Cr turnover was quantified (~3 % per day) and demonstrated that cardiac function was preserved even when creatine levels reduced by ~70-90%. Total absence of myocardial Cr induced impairment of inotropic and lusitropic cardiac function and reduced inotropic reserve. Cardiac dysfunction was only partially rescued by replenishment of the Cr pool, suggesting this to be a consequence of long-term adaptations to chronic low Cr. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that combined elevation of myocardial creatine and ribose would be beneficial in a mouse model of chronic HF by increasing cardiac energy availability. Despite an increase in myocardial ribose concentration, this did not prevent loss of total adenine nucleotides (TAN), and there was no improvement in post-infarct LV remodeling or function. Future studies are needed to explore alternative approaches for maintaining TAN in combination with total creatine.
Supervisor: Neubauer, Stefan ; Schneider, Jurgen E. ; Lygate, Craig A. Sponsor: British Heart Foundation (BHF)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cardiovascular disease ; creatine ; heart failure ; mouse ; adenine nucleotides ; ribose